Name: 
 

Cognition



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

You are daydreaming in the middle of a lecture. Are you actually thinking?
a.
Yes.
b.
No.
c.
No, but daydreaming is an example of cognition.
d.
Yes, you are thinking and daydreaming is an example of cognition.
 

 2. 

Computer programs capable of doing things that require intelligence when done by people are associated with
a.
artificial intelligence.
b.
proxemics.
c.
cerebronics.
d.
computerized creativity.
 

 3. 

__________ is the study of the meaning of words and language.
a.
Linguistics
b.
Encoding
c.
Semantics
d.
Syntax
 

 4. 

Representations used in thinking include
a.
mnemonic devices.
b.
kinesthesis.
c.
concepts.
d.
primarily figments of the imagination.
 

 5. 

Basic speech sounds are called
a.
morphemes.
b.
syllables.
c.
phonemes.
d.
syntax.
 

 6. 

A solution that correctly states the requirements for success in solving a problem but not in sufficient detail for further action is called a(n) __________ solution.
a.
heuristic
b.
general
c.
functional
d.
specific
 

 7. 

Fluency, flexibility, and originality would be most characteristic of which type of thought?
a.
convergent thinking
b.
mechanical problem-solving
c.
rote problem-solving
d.
brainstorming
 

 8. 

What type of concept is "uncle"?
a.
conjunctive
b.
relational
c.
relative
d.
disjunctive
 

 9. 

The inability to see new uses for familiar objects is termed
a.
non-flexible thinking.
b.
functional fixedness.
c.
proactive inhibition.
d.
interference.
 

 10. 

A person who is concerned about health, but who continues to smoke cigarettes, is making an error in judgment called
a.
functional fixedness.
b.
ignoring the base rate.
c.
representativeness.
d.
framing.
 

 11. 

Language is termed productive if it
a.
allows for communication of thoughts and ideas.
b.
is capable of generating new ideas and possibilities.
c.
increases one's adaptation to a changing environment.
d.
provides a set of rules for making sounds into words and words into sentences.
 

 12. 

Which of the following is usually associated with creativity?
a.
convergent thinking
b.
divergent thinking
c.
modeling
d.
syntax
 

 13. 

A truck gets stuck under a bridge. Several tow-trucks are unable to pull it out. At last a little boy walks up and asks the red-faced adults trying to free the truck why they haven't let the air out of the truck's tires. Their oversight was due to
a.
divergent thinking.
b.
cognitive style.
c.
synesthesia.
d.
fixation.
 

 14. 

Heuristics are problem solving strategies which
a.
use a trial and error approach.
b.
use random search strategies.
c.
guarantee success in solving a problem.
d.
reduce the number of alternatives.
 

 15. 

Characterisitics of creativity include
a.
convergence.
b.
flexibility.
c.
gender differences.
d.
rigid personality factors.
 

 16. 

A perceptual set that causes one to become hung up on wrong solutions or remain blind to alternatives is called
a.
inhibition.
b.
fixation.
c.
conditional thinking.
d.
incubation.
 

 17. 

If 98 out of 100 people respond "Golden Retriever" when asked to name what dog best represents the concept "dog," then a golden retriever would be called a
a.
denotative concept.
b.
prototype.
c.
relational concept.
d.
feature.
 

 18. 

The rules for ordering words in sentences are called
a.
grammar.
b.
syntax.
c.
semantic differential.
d.
heuristics.
 

 19. 

The solution to arithmetic problems requires
a.
mechanical solutions.
b.
convergent thinking.
c.
insight.
d.
brainstorming.
 

 20. 

A person would have the LEAST difficulty in classifying __________ as a tree or shrub.
a.
a cactus
b.
a fern
c.
an oak
d.
a palm
 

 21. 

A student who takes a multiple-choice test by reading the stem of each item, generating the correct response before looking at the choices, and then choosing the response closest to the answer is using
a.
a heuristic.
b.
an "ideal" solution.
c.
vicarious problem solving.
d.
an algorithmic search strategy.
 

 22. 

In baseball, an "out" is a
a.
conjunctive concept.
b.
relational concept.
c.
disjunctive concept.
d.
prototype.
 

 23. 

The stage of creative thought during which problem solving proceeds at a subconscious level is the __________ stage.
a.
incubation
b.
orientation
c.
preparation
d.
illumination
 

 24. 

A person is asked to decide on a major in school; another is asked to decide on a career. We may say that the different answers they give to broad and specific questions are because of
a.
differences in representativeness.
b.
base rate differences.
c.
differences in framing.
d.
differences associated with irrational personalities.
 

 25. 

The correlation between IQ and creativity is
a.
very high.
b.
very low.
c.
zero.
d.
more positively correlated the higher the IQ.
 

 26. 

Oversimplified concepts of groups of people are referred to as
a.
group thinking.
b.
social stereotypes.
c.
relational stereotypes.
d.
disjunctive stereotypes.
 

 27. 

Thought that is intuitive, haphazard, or personal is termed
a.
inductive thought.
b.
deductive thought.
c.
logical thought.
d.
illogical thought.
 

 28. 

__________ are the smallest meaningful units of speech.
a.
Morphemes
b.
Phonemes
c.
Pheromones
d.
Concepts
 

 29. 

The ability to speak two languages is referred to as
a.
bi-languagism.
b.
fluency.
c.
bilingualism.
d.
none of these.
 

 30. 

The two most basic units of speech are
a.
words and rules of grammar.
b.
ideas and concepts.
c.
morphemes and phonemes.
d.
connotative and denotative meaning.
 

 31. 

Words or ideas representing a class of objects are called
a.
abstractions.
b.
attributes.
c.
thoughts.
d.
concepts.
 

 32. 

Psychologist Wolfgang Köhler believed that the solution of a multiple-stick problem in chimpanzees revealed
a.
how reinforcement strongly guided their behavior.
b.
an ability for versatile and appropriate behavior to changing circumstances.
c.
a capacity for insight.
d.
the same problem solving abilities in chimps as in gorillas.
 

 33. 

"Anti" is an example of
a.
a phoneme.
b.
syntax.
c.
surface structure.
d.
a morpheme.
 

 34. 

Normal problem solving is likely to use
a.
mental images.
b.
olfactory sensations.
c.
synesthesia.
d.
semantic repression.
 

 35. 

A detailed, practical, and workable solution to a problem is called a(n) __________ solution.
a.
heuristic
b.
general
c.
functional
d.
specific
 

 36. 

The fact that "Dog bites man" has a very different meaning from "Man bites dog" demonstrates the importance of
a.
connotation.
b.
syntax.
c.
conditional relationships.
d.
linguistic determinism.
 

 37. 

If you wanted to enhance creativity, you would want to
a.
isolate yourself.
b.
make a rash decision.
c.
dig deeper into a problem with logic.
d.
look for analogies.
 

 38. 

Drawing conclusions on the basis of formal principles of reasoning is termed
a.
inductive thought.
b.
deductive thought.
c.
logical thought.
d.
illogical thought.
 

 39. 

Thought that involves going from general principles to specific situations is called __________ reasoning.
a.
deductive
b.
inductive
c.
divergent
d.
intuitive
 

 40. 

A rigid mental set can be a barrier to problem solving. Which of the following refers to a similar barrier to problem solving?
a.
oversimplification
b.
invalid reasoning
c.
functional fixedness
d.
divergent problem solving
 

 41. 

American Sign Language is
a.
a true language with a syntax and grammar.
b.
a pseudo-language with no syntax or grammar.
c.
a code system.
d.
an easily understood pantomime.
 

 42. 

The term "cognition" includes
a.
thinking, problem solving, reasoning, and dreaming.
b.
classical and instrumental conditioning.
c.
the use of memory systems.
d.
an active process by which sensory input is selected, organized, and integrated.
 

 43. 

A tendency to select wrong answers because they seem to match pre-existing mental categories is called
a.
intuition.
b.
representativeness heuristic.
c.
base rate.
d.
framing.
 

 44. 

A set of rules for structuring sentences is called
a.
linguistic determinants.
b.
grammar.
c.
semantics.
d.
morphemes.
 

 45. 

The study of the meaning of words is important because
a.
it reveals the connection between language and thought.
b.
people speak different languages and translation becomes important.
c.
it is necessary to follow the development of phonemes by a growing child.
d.
it measures the emotional content of language.
 

 46. 

Which of the following is TRUE about animal communication?
a.
Animals exhibit varied cries, gestures, and mating calls, but even these communications are often not understood by other animals of the same species.
b.
Although animal communication is limited, they can learn to use human language with ease and eventually attain the communication skills of the average high school sophomore.
c.
Animal communication can truly be called a language because it consists of symbols, grammar, and, most importantly, it is productive.
d.
While psychologists don't doubt that animals communicate, there is disagreement as to whether or not animals can actually be taught a language.
 

 47. 

A concept referring to an object having at least one of a number of features is a __________ concept.
a.
relational
b.
conjunctive
c.
disjunctive
d.
categorical
 

 48. 

Going from general principles to specific situations is called
a.
logical thought.
b.
deductive thought.
c.
illogical thought.
d.
inductive thought.
 

 49. 

Fluency, flexibility, and originality are characteristic of which type of thought?
a.
divergent thinking
b.
mechanical problem-solving
c.
logic
d.
deductive reasoning
 

 50. 

The way a question is stated before problem solving begins is known as
a.
representativeness.
b.
framing.
c.
incubation.
d.
defining the base rate.
 

 51. 

Concept formation refers to
a.
the organization of phonemes and morphemes into meaningful thoughts.
b.
the application of transformation rules to basic sentences.
c.
inductive as opposed to deductive thinking.
d.
organizing experiences into meaningful categories.
 

 52. 

__________ thinking goes from specific facts to general principles.
a.
Deductive
b.
Inductive
c.
Divergent
d.
Convergent
 

 53. 

If you translated "Pepsi is for the younger generation" into Spanish and the translation reads "Pepsi reverses aging," you have a problem with
a.
morphemes.
b.
phonemes.
c.
semantics.
d.
grammar.
 

 54. 

The rules that determine how words in a language can be put together to make sentences are called
a.
structural semantics.
b.
allophonetics.
c.
syntax.
d.
phonemes.
 

 55. 

Classifying things as absolutely right or wrong typifies
a.
good-bad or all or nothing thinking.
b.
multidimensional thinking.
c.
complex thinking.
d.
conceptual-categorical thinking.
 

 56. 

According to Chomsky, we are able to express ideas in a variety of ways by applying __________ rules.
a.
functional
b.
generative
c.
disjunctive
d.
transformation
 



 
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