Name: 
 

Developmental Psychology



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

According to Erikson, a major conflict in the first year of life is that between
a.
trust versus mistrust.
b.
initiative versus guilt.
c.
autonomy versus shame and doubt.
d.
relatedness versus isolation.
 

 2. 

ADHD in children is most often treated with the drug
a.
Haldol.
b.
Thorazine.
c.
Ritalin.
d.
Valium.
 

 3. 

For children with ADHD, the ability to learn is severely limited because they
a.
are mildly retarded.
b.
act on impulse and cannot concentrate.
c.
must take stimulants which shorten attention span.
d.
are given sedatives which make them listless.
 

 4. 

Lack of bowel control in children is known as
a.
enuresis.
b.
analism.
c.
encopresis.
d.
anorexia nervosa.
 

 5. 

In passive euthanasia
a.
a person's body is frozen upon death.
b.
drugs are administered to hasten death.
c.
body temperature is lowered to delay death.
d.
death is allowed but not caused.
 

 6. 

According to Erikson, failure to resolve the tasks of middle adulthood leads to a sense of __________ involving a concern for one's own needs and comforts only.
a.
apathy
b.
self-absorption
c.
despair
d.
stagnation
 

 7. 

A common mistake made by many concerned parents is likely to be
a.
deliberately creating high levels of stress for their child.
b.
unintentionally creating high levels of stress for their child.
c.
attempting to protect their children from all stress.
d.
unintentionally rewarding their children for creating stress.
 

 8. 

According to __________, we face a specific psychosocial dilemma at each stage of life.
a.
James Coleman
b.
Lawrence Kohlberg
c.
Erik Erikson
d.
Sigmund Freud
 

 9. 

A driver's license or a wedding ring are what Elkind calls
a.
status symbols.
b.
social markers.
c.
tokens.
d.
identity signs.
 

 10. 

From the perspective of the life-span psychologist, life stages are important because
a.
they represent the outcome of major biological changes.
b.
they present a set of developmental tasks to be mastered.
c.
they provide insight into the values and aspirations of particular cultures.
d.
their beginning and end are perfectly correlated with chronological age.
 

 11. 

Lawrence Kohlberg is known for his research in the area of __________ development.
a.
cognitive
b.
physical
c.
moral
d.
motor
 

 12. 

Identification with peer groups
a.
decreases during adolescence.
b.
gives an adolescent a measure of security and a sense of identity.
c.
reduces self-esteem and self-worth.
d.
seems to always lead to incredibly destructive behaviors.
 

 13. 

Stuttering is considered a
a.
side effect of authoritarian parenting.
b.
result of fixation caused by conflicts during toilet training.
c.
psychological consequence of permissive parenting.
d.
problem with a physical origin.
 

 14. 

A failure to develop a consistent identity results in
a.
isolation.
b.
inferiority.
c.
role confusion.
d.
stagnation.
 

 15. 

According to Kübler-Ross, the most common order of emotional reactions in preparing for death is
a.
anger, depression, bargaining, denial, acceptance.
b.
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.
c.
anger, depression, denial, bargaining, acceptance.
d.
depression, anger, denial, bargaining, acceptance.
 

 16. 

One recommended way for parents to handle problems of occasional bed wetting in children is to
a.
limit the amount of water they drink in the evening.
b.
punish them for "wet" nights.
c.
wake them up during the night to use the toilet.
d.
consider medication or psychotherapy.
 

 17. 

Grief refers to
a.
the period of emotional adjustment that follows the death of a loved one.
b.
the intense emotional state that follows the death of a lover, friend, or relative.
c.
the period during which a person seems dazed or numb and shows little emotion.
d.
demoralization and discouragement.
 

 18. 

Initiative and independence are fostered by
a.
restricting a child's freedom to play, to use imagination, and to choose activities.
b.
identity versus role confusion.
c.
encouragement from parents when a child plans and carries out a task.
d.
mastering psychomotor skills.
 

 19. 

Generativity refers to
a.
concern for welfare of others and society as a whole.
b.
the desire to have children and thereby ensure survival of the species.
c.
the ability to establish adequate social and financial security.
d.
active acceptance of aging and the social changes it brings.
 

 20. 

Vocabulary and stored knowledge
a.
reach their peak a few years after high school or college.
b.
are examples of fossilized intelligence.
c.
are examples of fluid intelligence.
d.
are examples of crystallized intelligence.
 

 21. 

Teachers, peers, and adults outside the home become important in shaping attitudes toward oneself in Erikson's stage of
a.
trust versus mistrust.
b.
initiative versus guilt.
c.
industry versus inferiority.
d.
integrity versus despair.
 

 22. 

Which of the following is one of the common life stages?
a.
infancy
b.
late adolescence
c.
later adulthood
d.
old adulthood
 

 23. 

The menopause and climacteric are to aging as
a.
integrity is to autonomy.
b.
birth is to death.
c.
activity is to ageism.
d.
puberty is to adolescence.
 

 24. 

Mutism, self-destructive behavior, and echolalia are symptoms of
a.
childhood autism.
b.
anorexia nervosa.
c.
ADHD.
d.
dyslexia.
 

 25. 

Conforming to the expectations of others or to socially accepted rules and values describes a person at the __________ level of morality.
a.
obedience
b.
concrete
c.
postconventional
d.
conventional
 

 26. 

Lack of bladder control is called
a.
colitis.
b.
anorexia.
c.
enuresis.
d.
encopresis.
 

 27. 

In the __________ level of moral development, moral choices are determined by the direct consequences of actions.
a.
preconventional
b.
conventional
c.
concrete
d.
postconventional
 

 28. 

Puberty
a.
is the same as adolescence.
b.
occurs earlier for boys than for girls.
c.
is the period of growth and hormonal changes that lead to sexual maturity.
d.
involves a growth spurt of 1-2 years during which boys are taller than girls.
 

 29. 

With aging there is a decline of __________ intelligence, but not of __________ intelligence.
a.
fluid; fixed
b.
fixed; fluid
c.
fluid; crystallized
d.
crystallized; fluid
 

 30. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of childhood autism?
a.
violent temper tantrums and repetitive actions
b.
sensory blocking and echolalia
c.
language and learning deficiencies
d.
encopresis and overeating
 

 31. 

If her parents encourage little Tanya to ask questions, to use her imagination, and give her the freedom to choose some activities, according to Erikson, they are encouraging
a.
industry.
b.
identity.
c.
generativity.
d.
initiative.
 

 32. 

The first emotional reaction to impending death is usually
a.
anger.
b.
denial.
c.
bargaining.
d.
depression.
 

 33. 

According to Gould, a "crisis of urgency" and the "attainment of stability" are characteristic of
a.
late adolescence.
b.
young adulthood.
c.
middle adulthood.
d.
the disengagement period.
 

 34. 

Kohlberg identified the three levels of moral development as the
a.
preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.
b.
conditional, unconditional, and postconditional.
c.
self-interested, social, and personal.
d.
premoral, conventional, and postethical.
 

 35. 

Girls who mature early are more likely
a.
to engage in earlier sexual relations.
b.
to be socially ostracized in middle and high school.
c.
to withdraw and become socially isolated.
d.
to become tall and thin.
 

 36. 

Hyperactivity is a serious childhood problem because
a.
of its association with severe brain damage and retardation.
b.
it cannot be treated.
c.
it interferes with success in school and learning in general.
d.
hyperactive children tend to be self-destructive and withdrawn.
 

 37. 

A child who is just starting school, trying to learn good habits and to do well, is in Erikson's stage of development called
a.
initiative versus guilt.
b.
industry versus inferiority.
c.
generativity versus stagnation.
d.
integrity versus despair.
 

 38. 

The fastest growing group in American society is represented by
a.
infants.
b.
elementary school-aged children.
c.
adolescents.
d.
the aged (those over age 65).
 

 39. 

From the perspective of Erik Erikson, life stages are important because
a.
each involves a crisis or dilemma.
b.
each signals a new stage of cognitive development.
c.
each is an expression of biological programming.
d.
their failure to appear is evidence of psychopathology.
 

 40. 

According to Gould, a "crisis of questions, " where an individual ponders the meaning of life, occurs during
a.
adolescence.
b.
early adulthood.
c.
middle adulthood.
d.
old age.
 

 41. 

As children begin their elementary school years, they enter Erikson's stage of
a.
initiative versus independence.
b.
industry versus inferiority.
c.
education versus indolence.
d.
autonomy versus conformity.
 

 42. 

The single most important thing you might do for a dying person is to
a.
avoid disturbing that person by not mentioning death.
b.
allow that person to talk about death with you.
c.
tell that person about the stages of dying.
d.
keep your visits short and infrequent in order to avoid tiring that person.
 

 43. 

Which pairings of stages from Erikson, Gould, and Levinson are comparable?
a.
identity - escape from dominance - age 30 transition
b.
generativity - leaving the family - age 50 transition
c.
generativity - crisis of urgency - midlife transition
d.
intimacy - crisis of questions - midlife transition
 

 44. 

The onset of puberty for boys is between __________ years; for girls it is between __________ years of age.
a.
9-13; 10-12
b.
13-16; 11-14
c.
8-11; 9-13
d.
11-14; 13-16
 

 45. 

Some children go through a period of intense appetite when they eat or chew on all sorts of inedible substances. This is called
a.
pica.
b.
enuresis.
c.
encopresis.
d.
anorexia.
 

 46. 

Elizabeth Kübler-Ross is known for her research in the area of
a.
eating disorders.
b.
adolescent behavior.
c.
coping with stress.
d.
death and dying.
 

 47. 

Using a story such as The Porcupine and the Moles, Gilligan was able to demonstrate that
a.
Kohlberg's system is concerned mainly with the ethics of justice.
b.
boys tend to use an ethic involving care and responsibility.
c.
girls tend to choose a solution based on justice.
d.
Kohlberg's morality system is true for both boys and girls.
 

 48. 

Discrimination or prejudice on the basis of age is called
a.
gerontism.
b.
autism.
c.
ageism.
d.
senilism.
 

 49. 

Which of the following is an example of ageism?
a.
being considered unqualified for a job
b.
being considered too experienced for a job
c.
voluntary retirement
d.
in Japan the status and respect the elderly enjoy
 

 50. 

Conformity to peer values often
a.
peaks in late adolescence.
b.
inhibits personal growth.
c.
assures an individual of acceptance.
d.
inhibits a member-of-society perspective.
 

 51. 

Kohlberg studied moral development by
a.
having subjects keep a daily journal of their actions.
b.
evaluating criminal and delinquent person's court records.
c.
posing moral dilemmas to children of different ages.
d.
having subjects perform various legal or illegal behaviors.
 

 52. 

A successful alternative to drug treatment for hyperactivity is
a.
psychotherapy.
b.
behavior modification or behavior management.
c.
punishment.
d.
progressive inhibition.
 

 53. 

A toddler learning to use the toilet who sometimes feels bad when he or she "messes up" is at Erikson's stage called
a.
identity versus role confusion.
b.
initiative versus guilt.
c.
autonomy versus shame and doubt.
d.
intimacy versus isolation.
 

 54. 

Bereavement refers to
a.
the period of emotional adjustment that follows the death of a loved one.
b.
the intense emotional state that follows the death of a lover, friend, or relative.
c.
the period during which a person seems dazed or numb and shows little emotion.
d.
demoralization and discouragement.
 

 55. 

If you are a young adult, you are interested in developing
a.
intimacy.
b.
generativity.
c.
integrity.
d.
initiative.
 

 56. 

A mother who complains that her son clings to her constantly and cries and complains when she is gone should be advised that
a.
this is normal behavior at certain stages of development.
b.
this is an unfortunate consequence of an undesirable parenting style.
c.
attachment behavior is clearly a function of delayed cognitive development.
d.
such behavior should be quickly discouraged because it leads to dependency as an adult.
 

 57. 

Which of the following is the longest stage of grieving for most people?
a.
shock
b.
anger
c.
depression
d.
agitation
 

 58. 

Overeating in children
a.
sometimes is encouraged by a parent who is anorexic.
b.
may be discouraged because the parent considers a fat baby unhealthy or undesirable.
c.
leads to the development of eating habits and conflicts that have life-long consequences.
d.
promotes the development of a healthy diet.
 

 59. 

Initiative and independence are fostered by
a.
giving a child freedom to play, to use imagination, and to choose activities.
b.
a child's experience with toilet training.
c.
acquiring personal autonomy.
d.
learning a sense of industry.
 

 60. 

According to Erikson, a child entering adolescence can expect major developmental task demands to center around the need to
a.
develop trust in others.
b.
achieve intimacy with another.
c.
acquire personal autonomy.
d.
develop a sense of one's self.
 

 61. 

The stated purpose of cryonic suspension is to
a.
speed death for the terminally and irreversibly ill.
b.
allow death to occur with a minimum of suffering.
c.
place the terminally ill in suspended animation until a cure can be found.
d.
preserve the body after death in hopes that future revival will become possible.
 

 62. 

A frequently used treatment for ADHD is
a.
use of severe punishment.
b.
administration of stimulant drugs.
c.
administration of tranquilizers to slow the child down.
d.
a high protein diet.
 

 63. 

I am in my late forties. If I do not reach out to others, especially to young people, Erikson says I will experience
a.
shame.
b.
isolation.
c.
stagnation.
d.
guilt.
 

 64. 

Behavior directed by self-accepted moral principles represents the __________ level of moral development.
a.
preconventional
b.
postconventional
c.
unconventional
d.
conventional
 

 65. 

Which of the following is a myth about aging?
a.
Most older individuals are the best drivers on the road.
b.
Most of the elderly show signs of senility and mental decay.
c.
The elderly who live alone are typically "social butterflies."
d.
Older individuals are just as sexually active as when they were 30.
 

 66. 

A specialist in death and dying, or one who studies death, is referred to as a
a.
bereavement counselor.
b.
thanatologist.
c.
funerologist.
d.
terminologist.
 



 
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