Name: 
 

Gender and Sexuality



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

In differentiating between the terms sex and gender,
a.
sex refers to biological aspects of identity, and gender refers to psychological and social identity.
b.
gender refers to sociocultural identity, and sex refers to sociocultural identity.
c.
sex refers to sociocultural identity, and gender refers to biological identity.
d.
none of these represent the terms correctly.
 

 2. 

Primary sexual characteristics refer to
a.
all those physical structures and psychological traits influenced by the sex hormones.
b.
development of breasts and body shape in the female, and changes in hair development and voice in the male.
c.
the sexual and reproductive organs themselves.
d.
estrogen in the female and testosterone in the male.
 

 3. 

Which of the following occurs first developmentally?
a.
gender identity
b.
secondary sexual characteristics
c.
primary sexual characteristics
d.
reproductive maturity
 

 4. 

Secondary sexual characteristics include
a.
the development of breasts and body shape in the female and changes in hair development and voice in the male.
b.
the sexual and reproductive organs in males and females.
c.
the development of appropriate sex roles.
d.
menarche and menopause in women.
 

 5. 

Menarche is to menopause as
a.
onset is to cessation of menstruation.
b.
androgen is to estrogen hormones.
c.
testes are to ovaries.
d.
male is to female.
 

 6. 

A major sign of puberty in women is the onset of menstruation, called
a.
menopause.
b.
ovulation.
c.
menarche.
d.
estrogen.
 

 7. 

__________ refers to the release of ova (eggs) from the ovaries.
a.
Primary sexual characteristics
b.
Ovulation
c.
Menopause
d.
Menarche
 

 8. 

__________ refers to an end to regular monthly menstrual periods.
a.
Ovulation
b.
Menopause
c.
Menarche
d.
Androgen
 

 9. 

The gonads are the
a.
biological name for the sex cells.
b.
biological term for sex hormones.
c.
sex glands.
d.
single determinant of gender.
 

 10. 

The female hormones are called
a.
androgens.
b.
testosterone's.
c.
adrenaline's.
d.
estrogens.
 

 11. 

Androgens are
a.
male sex hormones.
b.
female sex hormones.
c.
male reproductive structures.
d.
secreted by the ovaries.
 

 12. 

Male as well as female hormones are secreted by the __________ glands of both sexes.
a.
testes
b.
ovaries
c.
thyroid
d.
adrenal
 

 13. 

Which of the following is responsible for the secretion of sex hormones?
a.
testes
b.
pituitary
c.
thalamus
d.
thyroid
 

 14. 

Development of male genitals before birth is largely due to the presence of __________ in the male.
a.
two X chromosomes
b.
testosterone
c.
estrogens
d.
the bulbo-urethral gland
 

 15. 

There is no structural difference between males and females in the first __________ of prenatal development.
a.
trimester
b.
six weeks
c.
twelve weeks
d.
four months
 

 16. 

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a.
Genetic sex determines genital sex.
b.
Genetic sex is determined at conception.
c.
Gender identity is a product of both genetic sex and sex role identification.
d.
In the absence of testosterone, embryos develop female sex organs.
 

 17. 

When an otherwise female child is born with male genitals because of an over-secretion of androgen, the condition is called the
a.
androgenital syndrome.
b.
androprogestin syndrome.
c.
gender defect syndrome.
d.
sex-biasing effect.
 

 18. 

Which statement is TRUE regarding male-female differences?
a.
Estrogen influences the male sex drive.
b.
Most sex-related behavior is learned.
c.
Male brains are superior in size but not in operation.
d.
Sex segregated educational programs account for the decrease in male-female test score differences.
 

 19. 

Females with prenatal exposure to male hormones are
a.
no different than females with no such exposure.
b.
exclusively feminine.
c.
temporarily masculinized.
d.
permanently masculinized.
 

 20. 

Which of the following statements concerning gender identity is TRUE?
a.
Gender identity is essentially formed in the first few months after birth.
b.
Gender identity is formed during adolescence.
c.
Children born with ambiguous gender will develop a confused sense of sexual identity no matter how they are raised.
d.
Children born with ambiguous gender will develop a clear sense of sexual identity as long as the final decision concerning their sex is made by the age of 18 months.
 

 21. 

Compared to women, men
a.
have higher overall intelligence on group tests.
b.
perform better on tests of verbal ability and rote learning.
c.
show less rapid losses in IQ scores with increasing age.
d.
score higher on subtests measuring spatial relationships.
 

 22. 

One's personal, private sense of maleness or femaleness is known as
a.
genital identification.
b.
sexual scripting.
c.
gender identity.
d.
sex role perception.
 

 23. 

The observable traits, mannerisms, interests, and behaviors defined by one's culture as "male" or "female" are one's
a.
gender identity.
b.
gender role.
c.
genetic sex.
d.
biological bias.
 

 24. 

The favored pattern of behavior expected of each sex is called
a.
gender identity.
b.
sexual identity.
c.
gender role.
d.
biological sex.
 

 25. 

According to the text, gender identity is usually formed
a.
prenatally.
b.
the first year of life.
c.
before 18 months of age.
d.
by three or four years of age.
 

 26. 

Given the fact that gender roles are so different culture to culture, we could assume that
a.
there are very few, if any, inborn or "natural" differences between the sexes.
b.
only some cultures define gender roles.
c.
females should be expected to be sensitive, intuitive, passive, emotional, and "naturally" interested in household chores and childrearing.
d.
gender roles are real gender differences.
 

 27. 

Oversimplified assumptions about the nature of men and women are
a.
sex roles.
b.
gender role stereotypes.
c.
sexual scripts.
d.
sex differences.
 

 28. 

Learning from one's environment how to act "masculine" or "feminine" is known as
a.
gender association.
b.
gender role socialization.
c.
gender training.
d.
gender role perception.
 

 29. 

Which dimension of gender would typically be the last to develop?
a.
genetic sex
b.
gender identity
c.
hormonal sex
d.
gonadal sex
 

 30. 

A person with a strong gender role stereotype would probably make which of the following statements?
a.
Women would make good factory workers.
b.
Women should be nurses or teachers because those occupations don't require management decisions.
c.
A woman should not have limitations on what she should be able to do.
d.
Gender should not be a qualification for certain jobs.
 

 31. 

Gender role socialization begins at
a.
conception.
b.
birth.
c.
puberty.
d.
adolescence.
 

 32. 

The tendency for boys to engage in instrumental behaviors and girls to engage in expressive behaviors is evidence for
a.
the biological biasing effect of hormones.
b.
the natural differences between males and females.
c.
gender role socialization.
d.
sex differences in hemispheric dominance.
 

 33. 

People who possess the personality traits traditionally called "male" and "female" are called
a.
bisexual.
b.
adenoidal.
c.
androgynous.
d.
flexible.
 

 34. 

Human arousal may be triggered by
a.
unwanted sexual advances.
b.
greater persistence.
c.
financial success.
d.
thoughts and images.
 

 35. 

Gagnon researched the unspoken plans that guide our sexual behavior and called these mental plans
a.
schemas.
b.
sexual schemas.
c.
sexual scripts.
d.
androgynous scripts.
 

 36. 

The ultimate erogenous zone in both males and females is/are the
a.
genitals.
b.
anus.
c.
mouth.
d.
brain.
 

 37. 

Studies of sexual arousal show that
a.
women are more physically aroused by erotic stimuli than men are.
b.
arousal has a large cognitive element.
c.
men are more physically aroused by erotic stimuli than women are.
d.
arousal requires physical stimulation of an erogenous zone.
 

 38. 

Maximal sexual activity
a.
appears to occur later in females than it does in males.
b.
occurs in late adolescence in women.
c.
depends on estrogen levels in both males and females.
d.
occurs between the ages of 25 and 30 in males.
 

 39. 

For women,
a.
frequency of intercourse is highest when androgen levels are at a peak.
b.
large amounts of androgens are produced during menstruation.
c.
changes in androgen levels cause the menstrual cycle.
d.
testosterone inhibits sexual activity.
 

 40. 

Nocturnal emissions
a.
are signs of an impending urological disorder.
b.
are also referred to as enuresis in young children.
c.
occur when sexual dreams lead to orgasm and represent a completely normal form of sexual release.
d.
are reported more frequently by women than by men.
 

 41. 

Reduction in sex drive is most likely to accompany
a.
castration.
b.
vasectomy.
c.
tubal ligation.
d.
difficult birth.
 

 42. 

The effects of sterilization in humans
a.
usually abolishes the sex drive.
b.
may lead to more sexual activity because pregnancy is no longer a concern.
c.
are the same as with castration--most experience a decline in sexual behaviors.
d.
serve to change genetic sexual capacity.
 

 43. 

The contemporary view of masturbation is that it is
a.
normal and acceptable.
b.
self-injurious behavior.
c.
evidence of hormonal imbalance.
d.
evidence of poor emotional adjustment.
 

 44. 

Masturbation or self-stimulation in a three-year-old child would be a sign of
a.
normal sexual development.
b.
the androgenital syndrome.
c.
an excess production of sex hormones.
d.
severe depression.
 

 45. 

Which of the following is TRUE about masturbation?
a.
It can cause sterility.
b.
Its only negative effects come from learned attitudes.
c.
It represents immaturity and low self-esteem.
d.
It is presently seen as an abnormal sexual behavior.
 

 46. 

__________ refers to one's degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same gender, opposite gender, or both genders.
a.
Sexual orientation
b.
Sex role
c.
Sexual behavior
d.
Gender identity
 

 47. 

Sexual orientation refers to
a.
one's degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same gender, opposite gender, or both genders.
b.
the belief that heterosexuality is more natural than homosexuality.
c.
a person erotically attracted to both men and women.
d.
a person romantically attracted to same-sex persons.
 

 48. 

Which of the following factors influences sexual orientation?
a.
hereditary
b.
social
c.
psychological
d.
all of these
 

 49. 

If one identical twin is homosexual or bisexual, there is a __________ percent chance that the other twin is, too.
a.
25
b.
50
c.
75
d.
85
 

 50. 

There is research that indicates a genetic tendency for homosexuality, which is contributed by the
a.
father.
b.
mother.
c.
problem delivery.
d.
none of these
 

 51. 

Simon Levay has found a difference between heterosexuals and homosexuals in
a.
brain structure.
b.
I.Q.
c.
psychosis.
d.
phobias.
 

 52. 

Which of the following statements concerning homosexuality is TRUE?
a.
Most cultures have strong social values against homosexuality.
b.
Gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals encounter hostility because they are members of a minority group, not because there is anything inherently wrong with them.
c.
Homosexuality is outside of the normal range of variations in sexual orientation.
d.
Homosexual persons tend to discover their sexual orientation earlier than do heterosexuals.
 

 53. 

Psychological testing of homosexuals shows
a.
no differences in their adjustment compared to heterosexuals.
b.
major personality differences compared to heterosexuals.
c.
that most homosexuals have suffered from homophobia.
d.
that homosexuality stems from an ego-dystonic personality.
 

 54. 

Homophobia is
a.
rarely a problem for gays or lesbians.
b.
the psychological classification for gays and lesbians.
c.
prejudice against and dislike of gays and lesbians.
d.
a capacity for erotic attraction to members of the same sex.
 

 55. 

The belief that heterosexuality is better or more natural than homosexuality is called
a.
homophobia.
b.
heterosexism.
c.
homogenism.
d.
sexual orientation.
 

 56. 

The most objective laboratory research on human sexual response was done by which of the following?
a.
Hunt
b.
Kinsey
c.
Masters and Johnson
d.
Mosher
 

 57. 

The Masters and Johnson studies differed from earlier studies because they included
a.
interviews with males and females of all ages.
b.
observations of actual sexual behaviors.
c.
questionnaires about sexual habits.
d.
data on normal and abnormal sexual behaviors.
 

 58. 

The typical order of human sexual response is
a.
excitement, plateau, resolution, orgasm.
b.
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.
c.
arousal, orgasm, resolution, plateau.
d.
plateau, excitement, arousal, orgasm.
 

 59. 

The phase of sexual response indicated by initial signs of sexual arousal is the __________ phase.
a.
plateau
b.
orgasm
c.
resolution
d.
excitement
 

 60. 

The second stage of human sexual response is the __________ phase.
a.
excitement
b.
plateau
c.
refractory
d.
orgasm
 

 61. 

In males, a second orgasm is temporarily (or completely) prevented by a
a.
plateau period.
b.
failure to ejaculate.
c.
refractory period.
d.
resolution phase.
 

 62. 

The phase of sexual response involving a return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal is the __________ phase.
a.
plateau
b.
orgasm
c.
resolution
d.
excitement
 

 63. 

Which of the following statements concerning sexual response is TRUE?
a.
The phases of sexual response differ depending on a person's sexual orientation.
b.
Many women ejaculate during orgasm.
c.
About half the time, the male refractory period is immediately followed by a second orgasm.
d.
Orgasm and resolution in the male usually do not last as long as they do for females.
 

 64. 

Which belief of Freud's was disproved by Masters and Johnson?
a.
penis envy
b.
superiority of vaginal orgasms
c.
Electra complex
d.
superiority of clitoral orgasms
 

 65. 

Which of the following are classified as a paraphilia or sexual deviation?
a.
lack of sexual desire
b.
fetishism
c.
sexual identity disorder
d.
sexual communication disorder
 

 66. 

Pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, and frotteurism are all examples of
a.
sexual misconduct
b.
sexual problems
c.
paraphilias
d.
sexual difficulties
 

 67. 

Desiring and having sex with children or child molesting is referred to as
a.
voyeurism.
b.
pedophilia.
c.
paraphilia.
d.
transvestic fetishism.
 

 68. 

Sexually touching and or rubbing against a non-willing person is called
a.
voyeurism.
b.
exhibitionism.
c.
frotteurism.
d.
fetishism.
 

 69. 

Secretly viewing the genitals of others for sexual gratification is known as
a.
exhibitionism.
b.
transvestitism.
c.
voyeurism.
d.
sadism.
 

 70. 

Achieving sexual arousal by wearing clothes of the opposite sex is known as
a.
sadism.
b.
fetishism.
c.
transsexuality.
d.
transvestic fetishism.
 

 71. 

Which of the following is NOT a sexual disorder
a.
fetishism
b.
voyeurism
c.
pedophilia
d.
homosexuality
 

 72. 

Gaining sexual gratification from inanimate objects is referred to as
a.
fetishism.
b.
sexual sadism.
c.
sexual masochism.
d.
frotteurism.
 

 73. 

The majority of child molesters are
a.
rarely friends of the child.
b.
mostly childless husbands.
c.
child rapists.
d.
mostly fathers.
 

 74. 

Signs of child molestation include
a.
self-destructive thoughts.
b.
more social interaction away from the house.
c.
a decrease in emotionality.
d.
an increase in physical activity.
 

 75. 

Behavior that might indicate a child has been molested includes
a.
stomachaches, headaches, and other stress symptoms.
b.
bruises on the face and neck.
c.
violent and aggressive play with others.
d.
aggression against family pets.
 

 76. 

The pace of the "sexual revolution" has slowed recently largely due to
a.
more conservative beliefs.
b.
the fear of AIDS.
c.
both more conservative beliefs and the fear of AIDS.
d.
more emphasis on family values.
 

 77. 

According to the text, what is happening to the "double standard" regarding acceptable male and female sexual behavior?
a.
It has been drastically altered because of fear about AIDS.
b.
It remains about the same as it was 30 years ago.
c.
It is undergoing a slow death as the gap between male and female sexual patterns slowly closes.
d.
It is responsible for the major backlash in the sexual revolution.
 

 78. 

Which of the following statements concerning date rape is true?
a.
It is only a problem among "first dates."
b.
It happens to about 15 percent of college women.
c.
It is caused by an adherence to the double standard.
d.
Most women who are date raped report the incident to authorities.
 

 79. 

Rape is
a.
an act of brutality or aggression.
b.
almost always committed by a psychotic.
c.
a symbolic expression of male self-hatred.
d.
still considered primarily a sex act by most experts.
 

 80. 

Facts regarding rape include which of the following?
a.
At least 1 woman in 7 will be raped in her lifetime, and because many rapes go unreported, the true figure is probably 1 in 4.
b.
Approximately 1 college woman in 6 is a victim of rape.
c.
In 65 to 80 percent of all cases the rapist is a friend or acquaintance of the victim.
d.
All of these
 

 81. 

Which of the following describes how AIDS kills its victims?
a.
The virus prevents new cell growth.
b.
The body loses its ability to fight infection.
c.
The virus attacks the brain.
d.
The virus poisons the blood.
 

 82. 

The spread of the AIDS virus occurs
a.
only among homosexuals.
b.
only among bisexuals.
c.
only among drug users.
d.
among homosexuals, bisexuals, and heterosexuals.
 

 83. 

After becoming infected by the HIV virus, a person can still test negative for HIV for up to
a.
2 months.
b.
4 months.
c.
6 months.
d.
1 year.
 

 84. 

The AIDS virus can be transmitted by
a.
social kissing.
b.
sharing towels.
c.
direct contact with blood.
d.
shaking hands.
 

 85. 

Hypoactive sexual desire is said to exist when
a.
the loss of desire is persistent.
b.
the person is troubled by it.
c.
both the loss of desire is persistent and the person is troubled by it.
d.
the amount of desire is intense and uncontrollable.
 

 86. 

A person who desires sexual activity but does not become sexually aroused is suffering from
a.
desire disorder.
b.
arousal disorder.
c.
orgasm disorder.
d.
sexual pain disorder.
 

 87. 

Dyspareunia is
a.
a muscle spasm of the vagina.
b.
a method of inhibiting ejaculation.
c.
a persistent inability to reach orgasm.
d.
genital pain before, during, or after sexual intercourse.
 



 
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