Name: 
 

Memory



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The tendency for prior learning to inhibit recall of later learning is called
a.
encoding failure.
b.
repression.
c.
retroactive interference.
d.
proactive interference.
 

 2. 

Things that are heard are held as a brief __________ in the sensory register.
a.
echo.
b.
icon.
c.
image.
d.
engram.
 

 3. 

Twenty years after graduating, a subject is able to correctly identify photographs of students she attended high school with from a larger group of strangers. To do so she has used
a.
recall.
b.
recognition.
c.
eidetic imagery.
d.
reminiscence.
 

 4. 

Memories outside of conscious awareness are called
a.
proactive memories.
b.
reactive memories.
c.
explicit memories.
d.
implicit memories.
 

 5. 

The image that persists for about one-half second after being seen is a(n)
a.
sensation.
b.
echo.
c.
icon.
d.
illusion.
 

 6. 

Cue-dependent (or context dependent) theories of memory suggest that you would do best on your chemistry test if you could be tested
a.
in the room where you studied.
b.
in a chemistry laboratory.
c.
with a large group of chemistry majors.
d.
with students who share your interests.
 

 7. 

The part of the brain that functions as a "switching station" between the STM and LTM is the
a.
hippocampus.
b.
cerebral cortex.
c.
RS.
d.
engram switching center.
 

 8. 

The fact that a bodily state that exists during learning can be a strong cue for later memory is known as
a.
eidetic imagery.
b.
redintegration.
c.
state-dependent learning.
d.
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
 

 9. 

__________ concentrates on the meaning of information you want to remember.
a.
Dual memory
b.
Elaborative rehearsal
c.
Long-term memory
d.
Maintenance rehearsal
 

 10. 

Criticism of recovered memories has centered on the fact that
a.
it is reasonable to suspect hidden abuse when a person is depressed, has low self-esteem, or sexual problems.
b.
most victims of sexual abuse rarely remember having been molested.
c.
a patient guided by an incompetent therapist might confuse dreams with memories.
d.
personally important or traumatic memories cannot be created through suggestion.
 

 11. 

Transforming incoming information into a usable form is the stage of memory called
a.
retrieval.
b.
encoding.
c.
storage.
d.
organization.
 

 12. 

Helen has a six-month "gap" in her memories of grade school. Her "gap" corresponds to the period immediately after her father's death. Helen's memory loss is most likely accounted for by
a.
cue-dependent forgetting.
b.
repression.
c.
retroactive inhibition.
d.
decay of memory traces.
 

 13. 

Memories of historical facts are to __________ memory, as memories of your breakfast this morning are to __________ memory.
a.
episodic; procedural
b.
procedural; semantic
c.
semantic; episodic
d.
long-term; short-term
 

 14. 

The storage capacity of long-term memory is best described as
a.
a single item.
b.
about seven items.
c.
about seven volumes.
d.
limitless.
 

 15. 

The definition of memory is that it is an active system that receives, organizes, and
a.
stores information.
b.
decays information.
c.
filters all incoming information.
d.
discards old information.
 

 16. 

Psychologists have concluded that long-term memories fall into the following two categories:
a.
fact memory and mnemonic memory.
b.
procedural memory and fact memory.
c.
semantic memory and fact memory.
d.
semantic memory and redintegration memory.
 

 17. 

Decay theories of memory loss seem to be most appropriate for
a.
memory based on visual images.
b.
long-term memory.
c.
short-term memory and sensory memory.
d.
muscular memory.
 

 18. 

Essay questions tend to be more difficult than multiple choice because with an essay question,
a.
there are more cues to stimulate memory.
b.
recall is required rather than recognition.
c.
there is more proactive inhibition.
d.
there is more interference possible.
 

 19. 

The first step in placing information into memory storage is
a.
mnemonic memory.
b.
short-term memory.
c.
sensory memory.
d.
rehearsal.
 

 20. 

An intelligence test for adults frequently has a general knowledge section which tests for
a.
episodic memory.
b.
echoic memory.
c.
procedural memory.
d.
semantic memory.
 

 21. 

The process of holding information in memory is referred to as
a.
retrieval.
b.
encoding.
c.
storage.
d.
organization.
 

 22. 

Recoding, chunking, and rehearsal are especially important for the improvement of
a.
short-term memory efficiency.
b.
eidetic imagery.
c.
sensory memory.
d.
long-term memory traces.
 

 23. 

The improvement of memory to truly exceptional levels involves
a.
learning techniques for organizing or "chunking" information.
b.
replacing memory based on meaning with memory that utilizes images.
c.
improvements in short-term memory.
d.
improvements in the neural substrates of memory through drugs and nutrition.
 

 24. 

Working memory is associated with which of the following?
a.
sensory memory
b.
short-term memory
c.
long-term memory
d.
integrated memory
 

 25. 

__________ determines what information moves from sensory memory to short-term memory.
a.
Encoding failure
b.
Selective attention
c.
Repression
d.
Eidetic encoding
 

 26. 

Students often assume that because they can answer all the study questions once, they have sufficiently prepared for a test. This mistaken attitude overlooks the importance of __________ for improving memory.
a.
overlearning
b.
spaced practice
c.
recitation
d.
organization
 

 27. 

__________ refers to the fading of memory traces from short-term memory.
a.
Encoding failure
b.
Decay
c.
Disuse
d.
Decoding failure
 

 28. 

The major problem with using hypnosis in police work is
a.
vicarious inhibition.
b.
that there is little evidence that information gathered by hypnosis has ever helped solve a police case.
c.
the occurrence of false memories.
d.
a person's ability to be hypnotized.
 

 29. 

Eidetic imagery is found more often in
a.
children than in adults.
b.
adults than in children.
c.
men than in women.
d.
women than in men.
 

 30. 

A mail clerk has to rearrange mailboxes in a student dormitory and for a few days has difficulty sorting the mail. This illustrates
a.
retroactive interference.
b.
proactive interference.
c.
relearning.
d.
memory decay.
 

 31. 

__________ primarily keeps memories active in short-term memory.
a.
Dual memory
b.
Elaborative rehearsal
c.
Long-term memory
d.
Maintenance rehearsal
 

 32. 

Which of the following determines what information moves from sensory memory to short-term memory?
a.
consolidation
b.
an engram
c.
working memory
d.
selective attention
 

 33. 

When students who go to graduate school have to brush up on a foreign language they learned before, they find it easier the second time around. This illustrates
a.
rehearsal.
b.
recall.
c.
redintegration.
d.
relearning.
 

 34. 

Organizing information into larger units as a way of improving the efficiency of short-term memory is called
a.
chunking.
b.
categorization.
c.
verbal labeling.
d.
symbolization.
 

 35. 

Which of the following is true of short-term memory?
a.
It has an unlimited storage capacity.
b.
It deals with information for longer periods of time, usually for at least 30 minutes.
c.
It is seriously affected by any interruption or interference.
d.
Once information is placed in STM, it is permanently stored.
 

 36. 

Information is remembered without explicit cues or stimuli, often verbatim in
a.
recall.
b.
recognition.
c.
relearning.
d.
redintegration.
 

 37. 

State dependent learning is a term which refers to the fact that
a.
bodily states can be a strong cue for later memory.
b.
learning and memory can be increased with the use of drugs.
c.
happy people have better memories.
d.
adults lose any eidetic memory as they grow older.
 

 38. 

Remembering the first and last items of a list better than items in the middle is due to
a.
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
b.
redintegration.
c.
the serial position effect.
d.
the pseudo-memory effect.
 

 39. 

Which of the following can help to create false memories?
a.
hypnosis
b.
age regression
c.
suggestion
d.
all of the above
 

 40. 

Consolidation refers to the
a.
time taken for short-term memory to be complete.
b.
ability to see relationships between objects or events.
c.
process whereby memory storage is speeded by the use of electroconvulsive shock treatment.
d.
forming of a long-term memory.
 

 41. 

Procedural memory would be affected by damage to the
a.
cerebrum.
b.
cerebellum.
c.
motor cortex.
d.
limbic system.
 

 42. 

Which of the following would be an example of short-term memory?
a.
remembering the letters of the alphabet
b.
looking up a phone number and remembering it while you dial
c.
remembering your name
d.
remembering how to ride a bicycle
 

 43. 

According to the interference theory of forgetting,
a.
memory capacity is limited so that when new information is brought in, older memories must be removed.
b.
new learning can inhibit the retrieval of stored memory, and vice-versa.
c.
forgetting is directly related to the complexity and meaningfulness of the incoming information.
d.
cues present at the time of learning interfere with memory retrieval.
 

 44. 

Which of the following is true of rehearsal of information?
a.
Rehearsal is an aid to maintaining information in sensory memory.
b.
After 45 seconds without rehearsal, information is gone from STM.
c.
Rehearsal interferes with chunking and recoding of information in STM.
d.
Rehearsal aids the transfer of information from STM to LTM.
 

 45. 

The "magic number" __________ represents the average number of "bits" of information that short-term memory can usually handle.
a.
three
b.
six
c.
seven
d.
nine
 

 46. 

__________ memory is that part of long-term memory containing factual information.
a.
Episodic
b.
Semantic
c.
Declarative
d.
Procedural
 

 47. 

Evolutionary explanations for the efficiency of memory argue
a.
it is important to retrieve all past memories.
b.
total recall would paralyze us mentally.
c.
past episodic memories are highly accurate and detailed.
d.
environmental experiences are recalled with the highest degree of accuracy.
 

 48. 

The kind of memory that lasts for only a second or two is
a.
long-term memory.
b.
short-term memory.
c.
eidetic memory.
d.
sensory memory.
 

 49. 

When new learning disrupts the ability to recall past, stored information, __________ has been said to occur.
a.
proactive interference
b.
disinhibition
c.
retrograde amnesia
d.
retroactive interference
 

 50. 

__________ is known for memorizing nonsense syllables and plotting a curve of forgetting.
a.
Luria
b.
Mnemonic
c.
Ebbinghaus
d.
Loftus
 

 51. 

Which term refers to the observation that we alter memories by filling in gaps or by adding new information?
a.
redintegration
b.
constructive processing
c.
logical inference
d.
information processing
 

 52. 

When a person fills in gaps in memory with logic the process is called
a.
remembering.
b.
constructive processing.
c.
reconstruction.
d.
imagination.
 

 53. 

"Flashbulb" memories, which are vivid, lasting images of events associated with personal tragedy, may be produced in part by
a.
increased secretion of the hormone ACTH.
b.
decreased serotonin levels
c.
disinhibition.
d.
positive transfer.
 

 54. 

As new memories are formed, older memories are often __________.
a.
updated
b.
unchanged
c.
decayed
d.
deconstructed
 

 55. 

The correct order for the three stages of memory is
a.
short-term memory, long-term memory, retrieval.
b.
working memory, sensory memory, long-term memory.
c.
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory.
d.
short-term memory, sensory memory, long-term memory.
 

 56. 

Let's say you have a friend, Harriet, who is having trouble memorizing information for an anatomy class. The simplest and most helpful thing you could do would be to explain __________ to her.
a.
mnemonics
b.
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
c.
consolidation
d.
repression.
 

 57. 

An area of the brain of particular importance for memory storage is the
a.
hippocampus.
b.
parietal lobe.
c.
thalamus.
d.
medulla.
 

 58. 

The memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information is called __________ memory.
a.
sensory
b.
short-term
c.
long-term
d.
tactile
 

 59. 

Often, memories appear to be available but not accessible, as in
a.
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
b.
sensory memory failure.
c.
engram decay.
d.
interference.
 

 60. 

The fact that many people don't know which way Lincoln is facing on the penny is probably due to
a.
displacement.
b.
cue-dependent forgetting.
c.
interference.
d.
encoding failure.
 

 61. 

Joan repeats a list of vocabulary words for the Spanish test to move them from her short-term to long-term memory. This repetition is called
a.
redundancy.
b.
chunking.
c.
encoding.
d.
rehearsal.
 

 62. 

Using a variety of __________ can open a pathway to memory.
a.
cues
b.
recall
c.
hints
d.
recognition
 

 63. 

An expert typist who cannot describe the exact location of letters on a typewriter keyboard is demonstrating the importance of
a.
implicit memories.
b.
redintegrative memories.
c.
explicit memories.
d.
recognition memories.
 

 64. 

The Ebbinghaus curve of forgetting shows that forgetting is most rapid
a.
immediately after learning.
b.
one hour after learning.
c.
after one week.
d.
a few months after learning.
 

 65. 

The inability to recall events preceding an accident involving injuries to the head is called
a.
retrograde amnesia.
b.
prograde amnesia.
c.
motivated forgetting.
d.
cognitive blockage.
 

 66. 

Pseudo-memories are
a.
those memories recalled after amnesia.
b.
false memories resulting from constructive processing.
c.
delusions associated with mental illness.
d.
short-term memories.
 

 67. 

Which of the following would be considered an episodic memory?
a.
4 ´ 7 = 28
b.
the sixteenth president
c.
the accident you saw three weeks ago
d.
number of CDs owned
 

 68. 

Rehearsal works best when
a.
the information to be remembered is repeated over and over.
b.
it is used to link new information with existing memories and knowledge.
c.
memories are updated or reorganized on the basis of logic, reasoning, or the addition of new information.
d.
part of a memory is used to reconstruct an entire complex memory.
 

 69. 

A memory that a person is aware of having, or a memory that is consciously retrieved, is called
a.
explicit memory.
b.
implicit memory.
c.
priming.
d.
eidetic imagery.
 

 70. 

Activating implicit memories by providing partial information that is linked with them is called
a.
priming.
b.
repression.
c.
redintegration.
d.
forgetting.
 

 71. 

As shown by the curve of forgetting, memory loss occurs
a.
as learning is still going on.
b.
very rapidly at first and then levels off to a slow decline.
c.
not until three to four hours after the learning trial is over.
d.
slowly at first but is essentially complete within one hour.
 

 72. 

Which of the following would be considered a semantic memory?
a.
your first car
b.
the sixteenth president
c.
your third job
d.
the accident you saw three weeks ago
 

 73. 

The word used to describe how information gets into the memory system is
a.
retrieval.
b.
displacement.
c.
encoding.
d.
recall.
 

 74. 

In order for a memory to be useful, it must be
a.
filed.
b.
episodic.
c.
decoded as an image.
d.
retrieved.
 

 75. 

Your recollections about your last birthday are stored in your __________ memory.
a.
episodic
b.
semantic
c.
retroactive
d.
short-term
 

 76. 

If you witnessed a crime and were asked to pick out the criminal from a lineup, you would be doing what kind of memory task?
a.
eidetic imagery
b.
relearning
c.
recall
d.
recognition
 

 77. 

Information in long-term memory can be retained up to
a.
30 seconds.
b.
1 hour.
c.
many years.
d.
2 seconds.
 

 78. 

__________ memory is that part of long-term memory made up of conditioned responses and learned skills.
a.
Episodic
b.
Semantic
c.
Fact
d.
Skill
 

 79. 

Consciously forcing painful or anxiety-producing thoughts from memory is called
a.
proactive inhibition.
b.
repression.
c.
suppression.
d.
continued avoidance.
 

 80. 

Eidetic memorizers' long-term memory has proven to be
a.
far better than average.
b.
slightly better than average.
c.
average.
d.
no better than average.
 

 81. 

A brain-injured patient who can still execute a perfect golf swing or a high dive but is unable to recall or relearn even the broad outlines of American history is superior in
a.
procedural memory.
b.
semantic memory.
c.
episodic memory.
d.
fact memory.
 

 82. 

Interference theories of forgetting suggest that retention will be best when study is followed by
a.
sleep.
b.
light reading or watching TV.
c.
studying similar subject matter.
d.
studying different subject matter.
 

 83. 

A multiple choice question (like this one) makes greatest use of which type of memory?
a.
recall
b.
recognition
c.
relearning
d.
redintegration
 



 
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