Name: 
 

Research Methods



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

A psychologist using the method of naturalistic observation would
a.
carefully design controlled situations in which to observe behavior.
b.
rely on observations of subjects' responses to questionnaires.
c.
observe behavior as it happens outside the laboratory or clinic.
d.
make records of the behavior of clients treated in therapy.
 

 2. 

In a study of effects of alcohol on driving ability, the control group should be given
a.
a high dosage of alcohol.
b.
one-half the dosage given the experimental group.
c.
a driving test before and after drinking alcohol.
d.
no alcohol at all.
 

 3. 

A scientific explanation that remains tentative until it has been adequately tested is called a(n)
a.
theory.
b.
law.
c.
hypothesis.
d.
experiment.
 

 4. 

A study to determine the degree of relationship between two events is called
a.
naturalistic observation.
b.
the correlational method.
c.
a controlled experiment.
d.
the survey method.
 

 5. 

__________ is an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.
a.
Critical thinking
b.
Transductive thinking
c.
Deductive thinking
d.
Creative thinking
 

 6. 

The phrase "a theory must also be falsifiable" means
a.
researchers misrepresent their data.
b.
a theory must be defined so it can be disconfirmed.
c.
theories are a rich array of observations regarding behavior but with few facts to support them.
d.
nothing.
 

 7. 

The products of naturalistic observation are best described in terms of
a.
explanation.
b.
theory.
c.
prediction.
d.
description.
 

 8. 

A teacher believes that one group of children is very bright and that a second is below average in ability. Actually, the groups are identical, but the first group progresses more rapidly than the second. This demonstrates
a.
the self-fulfilling prophecy.
b.
the placebo effect in a natural experiment.
c.
observer bias in naturalistic observation.
d.
the ethical problems of field experiments.
 

 9. 

A psychologist observes the confrontation between two rival neighborhood gangs from the window of an abandoned building. This method of collecting observations is best described as
a.
experimental regression.
b.
naturalistic observation.
c.
controlled experimentation.
d.
clinical case study.
 

 10. 

In an experiment to find out if taking ginseng increases IQ scores, the IQ scores would be
a.
the independent variable.
b.
a control variable.
c.
an extraneous variable.
d.
the dependent variable.
 

 11. 

Which of the following is considered a disadvantage of naturalistic observation?
a.
It provides an overabundance of information.
b.
It deals with behavior not tampered with by outside influences.
c.
It limits biased observations through careful record keeping.
d.
It does not identify the cause of observed behavior.
 

 12. 

Subjects are said to be assigned randomly when
a.
they are assigned to experimental and control groups from a sample which is representative of the larger population.
b.
they each have an equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental or control group.
c.
they are assigned to experimental and control groups so that the groups differ on some critical variable before the experiment begins.
d.
neither the experimenter nor the subject knows whether the subject is in the experimental or control group.
 

 13. 

A psychologist watches the rapid eye movements of sleeping subjects and wakes them to find they report that they were dreaming. She concludes that dreams are linked to rapid eye movements. This conclusion is based on
a.
pure speculation.
b.
direct observation.
c.
deduction from direct observation.
d.
prior prediction.
 

 14. 

To prevent ethical abuse in psychological research, the APA has suggested that
a.
psychologists must treat all subjects with respect and concern for the subject's dignity.
b.
psychologists must avoid deception with using human subjects.
c.
all data collected from a person must be made public.
d.
all psychological harm to subjects must be corrected by counseling.
 

 15. 

A common method for selecting representative samples is to select them
a.
randomly from the larger population.
b.
strictly from volunteers.
c.
by threatening or coercing institutionalized populations.
d.
from confidential lists of mail order firms.
 

 16. 

Three major ethical concerns of psychological researchers are deception, lasting harm to subjects, and
a.
morality of the question under investigation.
b.
loss of future research possibilities.
c.
falsified results.
d.
invasion of privacy.
 

 17. 

An experimenter conducts an experiment on the effects of a drug to control hallucinations. He declares the results to be "statistically significant," which usually means that
a.
even though appropriate statistics were used, no differences could be detected between experimental and control groups.
b.
the results have important implications for theory or practice.
c.
differences between experimental and control groups of this size occur by chance only 5 times out of 100 (or less).
d.
differences between experimental and control groups were so large they could never occur by chance alone.
 

 18. 

We wish to test the hypothesis that music improves learning. We compare test scores of students who study to music with those who study in silence. Which of the following is an extraneous variable in this experiment?
a.
the presence or absence of music
b.
the students' test scores
c.
the amount of time allowed for the studying
d.
silence
 

 19. 

The statistical technique that combines results of a large number of studies is called
a.
experimental correlation.
b.
statistical linear analysist.
c.
meta-analysis.
d.
hypothetical analysis.
 

 20. 

An experiment is performed to see if background music improves learning. Two groups study the same material, one while listening to music and another without music. The independent variable is
a.
learning.
b.
the size of the group.
c.
the material studied.
d.
music.
 

 21. 

The chief function of the control group in an experiment is that it
a.
allows mathematical relationships to be established.
b.
provides a point of reference against which the behavior of the experimental group can be compared.
c.
balances the experiment to eliminate all extraneous variables.
d.
is not really necessary.
 

 22. 

Which of the following coefficients of correlation indicates the strongest relationship between two sets of variables?
a.
-0.98
b.
0.90
c.
0.00
d.
1.20
 

 23. 

The most powerful research tool is a (an)
a.
clinical study.
b.
experiment.
c.
survey.
d.
correlational study.
 

 24. 

A major disadvantage of the experimental method is that
a.
private funding can never be obtained.
b.
APA Ethical Review Committees often do not approve of the research techniques.
c.
there is a certain amount of artificiality attached to it.
d.
subjects are difficult to find for research projects.
 

 25. 

A researcher determines that the crime rate in a large city fluctuates with the phases of the moon. He concludes that the gravitational pull of the moon influences human behavior. He has committed what error?
a.
He incorrectly inferred correlation from causation.
b.
He incorrectly inferred causation from correlation.
c.
He failed to measure the gravitational pull to test his hypothesis.
d.
He has overlooked the placebo effect.
 

 26. 

Students who do better in high school tend to do better in college. This is an example of
a.
a negative correlation.
b.
a zero correlation.
c.
a positive correlation.
d.
a perfect correlation.
 

 27. 

In the traditional learning experiment, the effect of practice on performance is investigated. Performance is the __________ variable.
a.
independent
b.
extraneous
c.
dependent
d.
control
 

 28. 

Collection of observable evidence, precise definition, and replication of results all form the basis for
a.
scientific observation.
b.
the scientific method.
c.
defining a scientific problem.
d.
hypothesis generation.
 

 29. 

An advantage of the experimental method in psychology is
a.
the identification of a cause- and-effect relationship.
b.
similar to the correlational method in that causality is determined.
c.
that the surroundings are always similar to real life experiences.
d.
that it is an informal way to investigate behavior.
 

 30. 

A correlation coefficient of 0 means that there is
a.
a strong negative relationship between the two variables.
b.
a strong positive relationship between the two variables.
c.
a perfect positive relationship between the two variables.
d.
no relationship between the two variables.
 

 31. 

The independent variable in an experiment is
a.
the subject himself.
b.
a measure of the subject's behavior.
c.
the variable that the experimenter chooses to manipulate.
d.
any unwanted variable that may adversely affect the subject's performance.
 

 32. 

In order to summarize or organize a series of observations in some meaningful way, psychologists may develop
a.
hypotheses.
b.
experiments.
c.
surveys.
d.
theories.
 

 33. 

Basic ethical guidelines for psychological researchers include
a.
ensuring that participation is involuntary.
b.
harming the subjects when necessary.
c.
minimizing confidentiality.
d.
providing results and interpretations to participants.
 

 34. 

Which of the following best describes a double-blind experimental procedure?
a.
All subjects get the experimental procedure.
b.
Half the subjects get the experimental procedure, half the placebo; which they receive is known only to the experimenter.
c.
Half the subjects get the experimental procedure, half the placebo; which they receive is not known to subjects or experimenters.
d.
All subjects get the control procedure.
 

 35. 

A set of exact procedures that represent particular variables is called a(n)
a.
abstract definition.
b.
operational definition.
c.
case study.
d.
defining characteristic.
 

 36. 

A friend states that since he has been taking vitamin C, he has not had a single cold. His observation has little value in assessing the effects of vitamin C because
a.
there was no control group for comparison.
b.
he has not calculated a correlation coefficient.
c.
of the effect of the observer on the observed.
d.
he does not specify his dosage of vitamin C.
 

 37. 

A simple experiment has two groups of subjects called
a.
the dependent group and the independent group.
b.
the extraneous group and the independent group.
c.
the before group and the after group.
d.
the control group and the experimental group.
 

 38. 

An example of the "experimenter effect" would be a situation in which the experimenter
a.
acts out the proper behavior for the subjects.
b.
deceives the subject as to the real purpose of the experiment.
c.
unknowingly hints to subjects what is expected of them.
d.
overtly tells the subjects how to respond.
 

 39. 

Which of the following is considered by the text to be a pseudo-psychology?
a.
cognitive psychology
b.
behaviorism
c.
Gestalt psychology
d.
astrology
 

 40. 

To investigate the effects of a particular study method on student performance, two different methods are tried, each with a different group of subjects. If only the experimenter knows which method is under investigation, the procedure being used is described as
a.
double-blind.
b.
single-blind.
c.
self-fulfilling prophesy.
d.
representative sampling.
 

 41. 

The results of carefully controlled observations of Clever Hans and his ability to solve math problems showed
a.
he could do math.
b.
he could add, but he could not subtract.
c.
he was cued by the owner looking up or down.
d.
none of these could be determined by observation.
 

 42. 

The study of unusual events is to __________ as information from a large number of people is to __________.
a.
clinical method; naturalistic observation
b.
correlational method; survey method
c.
experimental method; naturalistic observation
d.
clinical method; survey method
 

 43. 

One of the limitations of the survey method is
a.
observer bias.
b.
that it sets up an artificial situation.
c.
that replies may not be accurate.
d.
the self-fulfilling prophecy.
 

 44. 

I work at a university, and my research is designed to be of immediate use in the classroom. My research would be called
a.
basic.
b.
applied.
c.
impractical.
d.
ethical.
 

 45. 

In terms of critical thinking and testing, results should
a.
be incredible.
b.
be repeatable.
c.
be subjective.
d.
be meta-analytical.
 

 46. 

A variable, such as the personality of a subject, that might affect the outcome of an experiment would be controlled by
a.
random assignment of subjects.
b.
assuming the effects of the variable are negligible.
c.
manipulating the dependent variables simultaneously.
d.
repeating the experiment several times until the results are consistent.
 

 47. 

In my experiment, I am going to investigate how sleep affects anxiety. The number of hours of sleep the subjects have is called the __________ variable.
a.
control
b.
experiential
c.
dependent
d.
independent
 

 48. 

With respect to astrology, palmistry, and phrenology, it can be said that
a.
all are pseudo-psychology's.
b.
none is subject to the P. T. Barnum effect.
c.
they rarely appear to "work" due to the fallacy of positive instances.
d.
astrology is the only system with a scientific basis.
 

 49. 

A major problem with the survey method is
a.
identifying the group to be questioned.
b.
obtaining a representative sample of subjects to be questioned.
c.
obtaining enough information in a short amount of time.
d.
that it cannot reveal very much about significant psychological events in the lives of the people tested.
 

 50. 

An observation that the higher the air temperature, the lower the activity of test animals would be an example of a
a.
negative correlation.
b.
positive correlation.
c.
causal relationship.
d.
zero correlation.
 

 51. 

To assess clients' abilities, a phrenologist would want to
a.
read their handwriting.
b.
examine their skulls.
c.
study their palms.
d.
record their EEGs.
 

 52. 

To replicate an experiment means to
a.
use control groups and experimental groups.
b.
use statistics to determine the effect of chance.
c.
control for the effects of extraneous variables.
d.
repeat the experiment using either identical or improved research methods.
 

 53. 

The conditions that a researcher wishes to prevent from affecting the experiment are called
a.
constants.
b.
dependent variables.
c.
extraneous variables.
d.
independent variables.
 

 54. 

One of the characteristics of the scientific method is
a.
repeatable results.
b.
top-secret information.
c.
analysis measurement.
d.
emotive reasoning.
 

 55. 

In the simplest experiment, the two groups of subjects are treated exactly alike except for the __________ variable.
a.
independent
b.
dependent
c.
extraneous
d.
control
 

 56. 

The steps involved in the scientific method include?
a.
axioms
b.
common sense
c.
experimentation
d.
hypothetical theory formulation
 

 57. 

__________ is an inherent part of the scientific method.
a.
observation
b.
common sense
c.
reinforcement
d.
analysis
 

 58. 

The story of Clever Hans, the mathematical horse, illustrates the use of controlled observation to test a series of
a.
hypotheses.
b.
theories.
c.
axioms.
d.
learning strategies.
 

 59. 

When subjects in an experiment are chosen so that each has an equal chance of being in either the experimental group or the control group, we say that the subjects have been assigned
a.
alternately.
b.
hypothetically.
c.
randomly.
d.
consecutively.
 

 60. 

The survey method involves
a.
an in-depth study of the opinions and attitudes of a selected individual.
b.
an overview of the attitudes and backgrounds of selected groups.
c.
direct observation and recording of a representative sample of behavior.
d.
careful questioning of a representative sample of people.
 

 61. 

The following type of method can be used in order to create a real world laboratory.
a.
correlational coefficients
b.
field experiment
c.
case study
d.
random assignment
 

 62. 

To be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship exists, it is necessary to
a.
engage in naturalistic observation.
b.
develop a positive correlation.
c.
perform a controlled experiment.
d.
test for a negative correlation.
 

 63. 

An experiment is performed to test the effects of sleep deprivation on rote memory. In this experiment, the dependent variable is the
a.
number of hours subjects go without sleep.
b.
rote memory scores.
c.
number of subjects deprived of sleep in the experimental group.
d.
correlation between hours of sleep and fatigue.
 

 64. 

The fortune teller who studies your palm carefully before announcing that "great fortune lies in your immediate future" is practicing __________ psychology.
a.
applied
b.
commonsense
c.
pseudo-
d.
forensic
 

 65. 

Research on the benefit of aspirin to prevent heart attacks used only male subjects in the sample. Both men and women are given this advice. The problem with this recommendation reflects
a.
gender bias.
b.
courtesy bias.
c.
cultural bias.
d.
age bias.
 

 66. 

To estimate the degree of the relationship between birth order and achievement motivation, a researcher would do a(n) __________ study.
a.
naturalistic
b.
inventory
c.
correlational
d.
experimental
 

 67. 

In the method of naturalistic observation, psychologists
a.
haphazardly encounter behavior as it naturally occurs.
b.
set up controlled experiments by which they uncover causal elements in behavior.
c.
set out to actively observe subjects in their natural environments.
d.
interview subjects at different ages.
 

 68. 

Two variables may be said to be causally related if
a.
they show a strong positive correlation.
b.
all extraneous variables are controlled, and the independent variable creates consistent differences in behavior of the experimental group.
c.
they are observed to co-vary on many separate occasions.
d.
they have been observed in a laboratory setting.
 

 69. 

The problems of observers seeing only what they expect to see is called
a.
observer bias.
b.
the experimenter effect.
c.
the effects of the observer.
d.
the halo effect.
 

 70. 

Giving placebos in drug experiments is necessary to
a.
counteract the random assignment of subjects.
b.
counteract the side effects of the drug.
c.
control for the effects of suggestion and expectation.
d.
keep control subjects from knowing they have been given the drug.
 

 71. 

Which of the following could serve as an experimental hypothesis?
a.
Although 25% of U.S. drivers say that they use the seatbelts in their cars, only 14% really do.
b.
A case history of multiple personality appeared to be caused by traumatic childhood experiences.
c.
College women who are anxious tend to want to be together.
d.
As the temperature increases, the number of hit batters in baseball increases.
 

 72. 

Theories explain results, predict future outcomes, and
a.
rely only on naturalistic observations.
b.
guide research for future studies.
c.
rely only on surveys.
d.
rely only on case studies.
 

 73. 

Which of the following coefficients of correlation indicates the weakest relationship between two sets of variables?
a.
0.08
b.
-0.29
c.
0.48
d.
-1.00
 

 74. 

A correlation coefficient of -1.09 indicates a(n)
a.
strong positive correlation.
b.
strong negative correlation.
c.
cause/effect relationship.
d.
error in computation.
 

 75. 

A representative sample is an essential element of the
a.
survey method.
b.
psychoanalytic method.
c.
natural experiment or case study.
d.
clinical method.
 

 76. 

The effects of brain injury on personality would usually be investigated by the use of the
a.
experimental method.
b.
case study method.
c.
naturalistic observation method.
d.
survey method.
 

 77. 

One of the limitations of the case study is that
a.
there are few subjects for which it is applicable.
b.
there are no control groups.
c.
it is not applicable to the study of bizarre behavior.
d.
it requires a large and expensive sample size.
 

 78. 

A scientist wants to find out if there is empirical evidence for a relationship between caffeine and aggressive behavior. She would
a.
interview people to get their opinions.
b.
correlate newspaper accounts and the types of beverages consumed.
c.
test the idea by conducting an experiment.
d.
research what other experts had thought.
 

 79. 

The essence of the experimental method is
a.
accurate calculation of correlation's.
b.
obtaining direct reports from subjects about their subjective experiences.
c.
careful measurement and record keeping.
d.
using control to identify cause-and-effect connections.
 

 80. 

If you're trying to establish a causal relationship between a reinforcer and increased performance, you should use a(n) __________ method.
a.
clinical study
b.
experimental
c.
survey
d.
correlational
 

 81. 

In a weight-reduction experiment, an overweight individual was given what the researcher called a new type of diet pill that would help curb the desire to eat. In fact, the pill really contained powdered milk, but ever since the individual started taking the diet pill, he has reported that his desire to eat has decreased. This illustrates the
a.
curvilinear relationship.
b.
effect of extraneous variables.
c.
natural experiment.
d.
placebo effect.
 

 82. 

An educated guess about what is controlling some behavior is called
a.
experimental control.
b.
a hypothesis.
c.
an experimental variable.
d.
a theory.
 

 83. 

A correlation coefficient is best characterized as a(n)
a.
measure of the extent of the relationship between two variables.
b.
index of the causal direction between an independent and dependent variable.
c.
indication of the likelihood that an experimental finding will be replicated by others.
d.
measure of the likelihood that observed differences may be attributed to chance.
 

 84. 

In order to determine the cause of behavior, the questions we ask must be
a.
tentative.
b.
testable.
c.
based on theory.
d.
novel.
 

 85. 

A common sense approach to psychology is
a.
the most reliable.
b.
often contradicted by empirical evidence.
c.
the basis for most psychological theories.
d.
the basis for collecting data (observed facts).
 

 86. 

Responding to a substance like a sugar pill as if it were a drug is called
a.
the placebo effect.
b.
an extraneous factor.
c.
variability.
d.
psychosomatic illness.
 

 87. 

The control group and the experimental group in an experiment are treated exactly the same except for the
a.
dependent variable.
b.
independent variable.
c.
extraneous variables.
d.
replication variables.
 

 88. 

A field experiment is one that
a.
uses the "real world" as a laboratory.
b.
tests a field or "range" of independent variables.
c.
differs little from naturalistic observation.
d.
requires no measurement of dependent variables.
 

 89. 

Characteristics of the scientific method include
a.
anecdotal definition.
b.
controlled observation.
c.
analysis formulation.
d.
adherence to inductive thinking or common sense reasoning.
 

 90. 

A correlational study is one that determines
a.
the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable.
b.
the effects of the observer on the observed.
c.
cause-effect relationships.
d.
the relationship between two events.
 



 
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