Name: 
 

Schools of Psychology



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

"I am primarily interested in thinking processes; I am a __________ psychologist."
a.
cognitive
b.
learning
c.
perception
d.
personality
 

 2. 

Like Carl Rogers, I believe people choose to live more creative and meaningful lives. My name is
a.
Wertheimer.
b.
Washburn.
c.
Skinner.
d.
Maslow.
 

 3. 

Comparative psychologists are primarily interested in
a.
stimulus-response connections.
b.
animal behavior.
c.
the comparison of functional and behavioral psychology.
d.
the comparison of different types of psychotherapy.
 

 4. 

Of the following, who is associated with the Gestalt school of psychology?
a.
Ivan Pavlov
b.
B. F. Skinner
c.
Max Wertheimer
d.
John Watson
 

 5. 

Of the following, who is a humanistic psychologist?
a.
Sigmund Freud
b.
Abraham Maslow
c.
B. F. Skinner
d.
John Watson
 

 6. 

Which of the following represents an empirical statement?
a.
Government experts agree that a future downturn in the economy is likely.
b.
The temperature today is higher than it was a year ago today.
c.
IQ is defined as mental age, divided by age in years, times 100.
d.
Grandmothers know best.
 

 7. 

A psychologist performs the following experiment: she gives subjects photographs of female faces and asks them to rate the attractiveness of each face. However, some of the subjects have just had to take a very difficult math test, while others have taken a very easy math test. The psychologist would probably be a __________ psychologist.
a.
industrial
b.
comparative
c.
developmental
d.
social
 

 8. 

According to John Watson, introspection was
a.
a valid method of research.
b.
unscientific.
c.
the cornerstone of behaviorism.
d.
the study of the mind in use.
 

 9. 

One of the reasons to study psychology is
a.
to understand the human mind and how it works.
b.
to learn how to manipulate others.
c.
to completely understand and predict human behavior.
d.
to have the answers to all of life's questions.
 

 10. 

A psychologist who studies family dynamics and their effects on behavior of individuals in different regions would probably be a __________ psychologist.
a.
learning
b.
cultural
c.
developmental
d.
cognitive
 

 11. 

Which of the following psychological theories is known as the one that emphasizes "free will"?
a.
psychodynamic psychology
b.
behaviorism
c.
humanistic psychology
d.
neo-Freudian psychology
 

 12. 

The study of similarities and differences in the behavior of different species is called
a.
biology.
b.
comparative psychology.
c.
environmental psychology.
d.
differential psychology.
 

 13. 

Which of the following is the best example of covert behavior?
a.
blinking in response to a light
b.
imitating a friend's gesture
c.
remembering a pleasant experience
d.
rapid eye movements while sleeping
 

 14. 

Which of the following behaviors can best be described as overt behavior?
a.
watching a TV game show
b.
thinking about the answer to a contestant's question
c.
being sad that the contestant answered incorrectly
d.
wondering if there are any frozen waffles left in the freezer
 

 15. 

Which of the following statements concerning psychodynamic psychology is true?
a.
Freud's theories were very involved and extensive, but they ended up contributing very little to our understanding of human behavior.
b.
Freud's theories remain influential today and are largely unchanged from their first conceptualizations.
c.
Almost immediately, many of Freud's students broke away from his theories in order to modify and change them.
d.
Psychodynamic psychology focuses on observable behaviors.
 

 16. 

Brain mechanisms involved in hunger and thirst would most likely be studied by a
a.
personality theorist.
b.
sensory psychologist.
c.
learning theorist.
d.
biopsychologist.
 

 17. 

"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" is represented by which of the following?
a.
the Gestalt psychologists.
b.
the behaviorists.
c.
the structuralists.
d.
the functionalists.
 

 18. 

The goals of psychology are to
a.
develop effective methods of psychotherapy.
b.
describe, predict, understand, and control behavior.
c.
explain the functioning of the human mind.
d.
compare, analyze, and control human behavior.
 

 19. 

Freud believed that all thoughts and actions are determined by
a.
the first year of life.
b.
forces in the personality that are often unconscious.
c.
needs for love and self-esteem.
d.
the drive for self-actualization.
 

 20. 

The largest area of specialization among psychologists is
a.
industrial and organizational.
b.
experimental, physiological, and comparative.
c.
social and personality.
d.
clinical and counseling.
 

 21. 

The term cognition refers to
a.
predicting the future.
b.
analysis and synthesis.
c.
thinking or knowing.
d.
introspection.
 

 22. 

Barbara is applying conditioning principles to teach language skills to retarded children. As a psychologist, her point of view appears to be
a.
Freudian.
b.
Gestalt.
c.
functionalist.
d.
behaviorist.
 

 23. 

Strict behaviorists were criticized for overlooking the role that __________ plays in our lives.
a.
reward
b.
thinking
c.
punishment
d.
stimuli
 

 24. 

A psychologist who is "eclectic" can best be described as
a.
rejecting determinism in favor of free will.
b.
cognitive rather than behavioral.
c.
drawing from many psychological approaches.
d.
preferring pseudo-psychological approaches.
 

 25. 

The study of mental processes such as thinking, perception, information processing, etc. is a key element in __________ psychology.
a.
humanistic
b.
cognitive
c.
behavioral
d.
biological
 

 26. 

Overt behavior is
a.
anything a person does.
b.
only those things a person does which you can see.
c.
only those things which can be recorded by a camera.
d.
only those things which a person can see with his/her senses.
 

 27. 

Which area in psychology would be most likely to study the phenomenon of "peer influence"?
a.
social
b.
comparative
c.
physiological
d.
school
 

 28. 

Psychologists are all
a.
scientists.
b.
practitioners.
c.
both scientists and practitioners.
d.
either scientists or practitioners.
 

 29. 

If you were to walk into a laboratory where the effects of intense punishment on a rat's ability to form a discrimination was being studied, you would be in the lab of a __________ psychologist.
a.
physiological
b.
developmental
c.
learning
d.
social
 

 30. 

Maslow proposed a need to develop one's potential and be the best one can be, which he called
a.
self-image.
b.
self-concept.
c.
self-esteem.
d.
self-actualization.
 

 31. 

The psychodynamic view emphasizes the role of __________ in development.
a.
external rewards and punishments
b.
internal impulses, desires, and conflicts
c.
subjective experiences, potentials, and ideals
d.
physiology, genetics, biochemistry, and evolution
 

 32. 

Psychology is
a.
the study of human origins, evolution, and cultures.
b.
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes of any living creature.
c.
a natural science integrating physiology and neurology.
d.
the deductive study of forms and functions of human groups.
 

 33. 

Of the following, who was a structuralist?
a.
B. F. Skinner
b.
John Watson
c.
Wilhelm Wundt
d.
William James
 

 34. 

Some modern psychodynamic theorists, or neo-Freudians, focused on
a.
the whole.
b.
social motives and relationships that influence our behavior.
c.
human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
d.
observable behaviors.
 

 35. 

Some topics in psychology are difficult to study because
a.
they overlap with other fields, such as law and business.
b.
of ethical considerations.
c.
advanced technology that measures brain waves is not available.
d.
of a lack of interest in human behavior.
 

 36. 

Behaviorism helped make psychology a
a.
fad.
b.
science.
c.
specialty.
d.
hoax.
 

 37. 

Psychiatrists differ from psychologists in that psychiatrists
a.
are physicians with a specialization in abnormal behavior and psychotherapy.
b.
are extensively trained in the theories and techniques of Sigmund Freud.
c.
are generally more eclectic than psychologists.
d.
have a Masters or Ph.D. degree with special training in psychological theory and research methods.
 

 38. 

Developmental psychologists study the effects of __________ on behavior.
a.
marketing
b.
learning disabilities
c.
aging
d.
robotics
 

 39. 

The kind of therapy developed by Freud is called
a.
Gestalt therapy.
b.
psychoanalysis.
c.
behavior modification.
d.
S-R therapy.
 

 40. 

Freud stressed the role of __________ in shaping our personalities.
a.
the structure of the mind
b.
the function of our behaviors
c.
our history of rewards and punishments
d.
the unconscious
 

 41. 

The "father" of psychology and founder of the first psychological laboratory was
a.
Wilhelm Wundt.
b.
Sigmund Freud.
c.
John B. Watson.
d.
B. F. Skinner.
 

 42. 

You see a psychologist and tell her that you are feeling depressed. The psychologist talks to you about your past and attempts to link your present situation with patterns developed in your childhood during your relationship with your parents. The psychologist would probably belong to which school of psychology?
a.
humanistic psychology
b.
psychodynamic psychology
c.
behaviorism
d.
Gestalt psychology
 

 43. 

The structuralist school of psychology
a.
used introspection to analyze conscious experience.
b.
relied heavily on the concept of natural selection.
c.
was concerned with experiences as "wholes."
d.
used dream analysis to reveal the unconscious.
 

 44. 

"Experience cannot be analyzed successfully into its elements" would likely be said by a
a.
Gestalt psychology.
b.
behaviorist.
c.
structuralist.
d.
functionalist.
 

 45. 

The key idea in the behavioristic view is that
a.
behavior is shaped and controlled by one's environment.
b.
behavior is the result of clashing forces with the personality.
c.
behavior can be understood in terms of the mental processing of information.
d.
environment plays a very small role in controlling one's behavior.
 

 46. 

Evolutionary psychologists would study
a.
the biological makeup of the human mind across cultures.
b.
historical behavior of a single species.
c.
developmentally how chimpanzees and humans are similar.
d.
male and female trends in mating choices.
 

 47. 

A practitioner who is intensively trained in the theories of Freud and treats patients by talking to them is probably a
a.
psychiatrist.
b.
clinical psychologist.
c.
psychoanalyst.
d.
counseling psychologist.
 

 48. 

You see a psychologist and tell her that you are feeling depressed. The psychologist focuses on those activities you engage in currently around which you feel depressed, and she talks with you about changing these activities and thoughts that make you feel "down" and doing things which make you happy. This psychologist would probably belong to the __________ school of psychology.
a.
humanistic
b.
psychodynamic
c.
behaviorist
d.
Gestalt
 

 49. 

A social scientist who characterizes his/her work as the study of the relationship between environmental events and the behavior they produce without regard for experience or consciousness is a
a.
functionalist.
b.
structuralist.
c.
Gestalt psychologist.
d.
behaviorist.
 

 50. 

The APA professional code stresses
a.
high levels of competence, integrity, and responsibility.
b.
use of the scientific method in testing hypotheses.
c.
deception as a technique to engage the psyche.
d.
cooperation with authorities when a client is suspected of a crime.
 

 51. 

A psychologist whose viewpoint is psychodynamic
a.
focuses on self-image and self-actualization to explain behavior.
b.
believes behavior is directed by forces within one's personality which are often unconscious.
c.
emphasizes the study of observable behavior.
d.
is usually eclectic in his practice.
 

 52. 

You see a psychologist and tell her that you are feeling depressed. She talks to you about the goals you have for yourself, about your image of yourself, and about the choices that you make in your life and that you could make in your life. This psychologist would probably belong to the __________ school of psychology.
a.
humanistic
b.
psychodynamic
c.
behavioristic
d.
Gestalt
 

 53. 

A psychologist who studies gender issues focuses on
a.
learning the differences between the sexes and how they develop.
b.
cultural and family relationships.
c.
peer group formation.
d.
cognitive processes.
 

 54. 

__________ psychology is concerned with thinking, language, and problem solving.
a.
Behavioristic
b.
Psychoanalytic
c.
Cognitive
d.
Humanistic
 

 55. 

Eclectic psychologists are known for
a.
studying the brain and nervous system.
b.
drawing on a variety of theoretical views.
c.
prescribing drugs to treat emotional disorders.
d.
stressing the role of the unconscious.
 

 56. 

Psychology is considered a science because it
a.
gains information through new methods and technology.
b.
accepts what seems plausible and sensible.
c.
relies on direct observation and measurement of behavior.
d.
studies animal as well as human behavior.
 

 57. 

Covert behavior is
a.
anything a person does.
b.
only those things a person does which you can see.
c.
only those things which can be recorded by a camera.
d.
only those things which are not observable by others.
 

 58. 

Who among the following can prescribe drugs to treat emotional problems?
a.
psychiatrist
b.
social worker
c.
psychologist
d.
Gestalt therapist
 

 59. 

The proper use of reward, punishment, and behavior modification are results of
a.
functionalism.
b.
humanism.
c.
structuralism.
d.
behaviorism.
 

 60. 

The eclectic approach
a.
stresses the Gestalt perspective.
b.
emphasizes structuralist principles.
c.
embraces a variety of theoretical views.
d.
has disappeared entirely as a perspective in psychology.
 

 61. 

Repression refers to
a.
thoughts mistakenly held out of awareness.
b.
thoughts actively held out of awareness.
c.
forgetfulness.
d.
the fact that all thoughts, emotions, and actions are determined.
 

 62. 

Psychologists use animals in experiments in order to
a.
avoid using unreliable human subjects.
b.
comply with government prohibitions against any unpleasant experiments using human subjects.
c.
investigate problems that cannot be studied with human subjects in order to discover principles that apply to humans.
d.
eliminate the effect of the anthropomorphic fallacy.
 

 63. 

A common sense approach to psychology is
a.
the most reliable.
b.
often contradicted by empirical evidence.
c.
the basis for most psychological theories.
d.
the basis for collecting data (observed facts).
 

 64. 

Of the theorists listed below, who helped to develop the humanistic approach in psychology?
a.
Rogers
b.
Skinner
c.
Titchener
d.
Freud
 

 65. 

William James wrote Principles of Psychology and founded
a.
structuralism.
b.
functionalism.
c.
behaviorism.
d.
humanism.
 

 66. 

__________ focus their work on the attempt to explain all behavior in terms of internal physical mechanisms.
a.
Biopsychologists
b.
Behaviorists
c.
Psychoanalysts
d.
Humanists
 

 67. 

Psychodynamic psychology differs from other approaches because it is based on
a.
animal rather than human models.
b.
thoughts and impulses outside of conscious experience.
c.
introspection by trained subjects.
d.
laboratory studies in controlled settings.
 

 68. 

The humanistic viewpoint emphasizes
a.
free will, self-image, and self-actualization.
b.
determinism, the unconscious, and biological drives.
c.
natural selection and practical skills.
d.
the idea that "the environment is the key causal matrix."
 

 69. 

According to John B. Watson, psychology is the study of
a.
the mind.
b.
conscious experience.
c.
mental states.
d.
behavior.
 

 70. 

"I seek to understand the principles whereby a child develops the ability to think, speak, perceive, and learn." This statement identifies one as a __________ psychologist.
a.
physiological
b.
social
c.
developmental
d.
sensory/perceptual
 

 71. 

Behavior is
a.
anything a person does.
b.
only those things a person does which you can see.
c.
only those things which can be recorded by a camera.
d.
only those things which a person can see with his/her senses.
 

 72. 

According to the __________ view, the need for love, self-esteem, belonging, self expression, and creativity are as important as biological needs.
a.
psychodynamic
b.
behavioristic
c.
humanistic
d.
cognitive
 

 73. 

Biopsychologists
a.
limit the scope of their study to animals.
b.
are concerned with self-actualization and free will.
c.
stress the unconscious aspect of behavior.
d.
attempt to explain behavior in terms of biological or physical mechanisms.
 

 74. 

Which of the following best describes Maslow's concept of self-actualization?
a.
the need to protect one's self-image through self-deception
b.
the need to feel a part of a higher spiritual order
c.
the need to develop one's potential fully
d.
self-actualization
 

 75. 

Which view of human nature is considered to be the most philosophical and the least scientific?
a.
behaviorism
b.
cognitive psychology
c.
humanism
d.
psychoanalysis
 



 
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