Name: 
 

Social Psychology



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Nell tastes her food, then salts it. You assume that the food needed salt, therefore, you attribute her actions to a(n)
a.
internal cause.
b.
external cause.
c.
setting.
d.
situational demand.
 

 2. 

There is a strong relationship between dating frequency and physical attractiveness
a.
for males.
b.
for females.
c.
for both males and females.
d.
beyond the initial stage of attraction.
 

 3. 

__________ is best known for his research on conformity.
a.
Asch
b.
Rubin
c.
Schachter
d.
Zimbardo
 

 4. 

Which is TRUE regarding choosing a mate?
a.
People who marry are highly similar in age, education, race, religion, and ethnic background.
b.
The highest correlation between people who marry involves their temperaments.
c.
In the United States kindness and understanding are ranked as being the least important qualities in a mate.
d.
Men rate physical attractiveness as a less important quality in a mate than women do.
 

 5. 

The study in which college students attached a bumper sticker for a militant black organization to their cars and then received frequent traffic citations demonstrates
a.
group prejudice.
b.
scapegoating.
c.
personal prejudice.
d.
discrimination.
 

 6. 

According to Janis, John F. Kennedy's Bay of Pigs failure was caused in large part by
a.
brainstorming.
b.
groupthink.
c.
the self-censorship effect.
d.
the expert power effect.
 

 7. 

When we perform well, we typically attribute our success to __________.
a.
internal characteristics
b.
our group of colleagues
c.
external circumstances
d.
our personality type
 

 8. 

Which is true of social stereotypes?
a.
They are always negative.
b.
They tend to be rational.
c.
Likable members of a rejected group are perceived as an "exception."
d.
University students show more evidence of ethnic stereotyping now than they did in the past.
 

 9. 

A __________ group is a group based on social comparison.
a.
focus
b.
personal identification
c.
reference
d.
comparison
 

 10. 

During the Stanford Prison study,
a.
guards did not take their roles seriously.
b.
guards readily assumed their roles as agents of force.
c.
the prisoners and the guards quickly became friendly towards one another
d.
three prisoners were so severely beaten they had to be hospitalized.
 

 11. 

Scapegoating is releasing aggression on __________ targets.
a.
moving
b.
unsafe
c.
safe
d.
none of these
 

 12. 

During research in a simulated prison situation
a.
three prisoners were so severely beaten they had to be hospitalized.
b.
guards did not take their roles seriously.
c.
prisoners quickly became passive and dehumanized.
d.
the prisoners and the guards quickly became friendly towards one another.
 

 13. 

The degree of attraction among group members relates to the dimension of
a.
compatibility.
b.
structure.
c.
cohesiveness.
d.
conformity.
 

 14. 

According to the theory of cognitive dissonance, attitudes are changed because
a.
emotionally persuasive arguments unfreeze beliefs.
b.
logical arguments alter the belief component of an attitude.
c.
clashing thoughts cause discomfort.
d.
acting contrary to one's beliefs for a large reward causes dissonance.
 

 15. 

An example of a superordinate goal is
a.
getting good grades.
b.
making money.
c.
making friends.
d.
protecting clean water supplies.
 

 16. 

You are walking into a store when a man rudely cuts in front of you, almost shoving you, so that he may enter the store first. "What a jerk!" you think to yourself. As you enter the store, you see the same man performing an emergency tracheotomy on a women with a collapsed windpipe. You have just
a.
discounted a person's actions due to situational demands.
b.
self-handicapped.
c.
overemphasized the object in this action sequence.
d.
made the fundamental attribution error.
 

 17. 

According to evolutionary psychologists,
a.
women tend to be concerned with whether mates will devote time and resources to a relationship.
b.
men place less emphasis on physical attractiveness.
c.
women place more emphasis on sexual fidelity.
d.
men are biologically driven to have multiple partners.
 

 18. 

In North America, male friendships are __________ based and female friendships are __________ .
a.
activity; based on sharing feelings.
b.
attraction; based on activity
c.
feeling; based on activity
d.
activity; based on attraction
 

 19. 

Which statement about physical attractiveness is FALSE?
a.
Beauty is a factor mainly in initial acquaintances.
b.
Looks are less related to dating frequency for men than for women.
c.
For men, there is little relationship between attractiveness and the achievement of status.
d.
For marriage partners there is a tendency for attractive men to be paired with highly educated women with high incomes.
 

 20. 

Moderate self-disclosure typically leads to
a.
competence matching.
b.
rejection.
c.
romantic attraction.
d.
reciprocity.
 

 21. 

Research by Donnerstein suggests that the circumstances most likely to increase violent sexual acts against women (such as rape) involve:
a.
newspaper publicity given to rapists.
b.
direct exposure to persons who have committed such acts.
c.
media images of violence.
d.
pornographic stimuli that generate sexual fantasies.
 

 22. 

When subjects in Milgram's obedience experiments received their orders over the phone, they
a.
conformed more completely due to the formality of the telephoned instructions.
b.
completely refused to participate.
c.
were only slightly more obedient than they were in face-to-face conditions.
d.
were far less obedient.
 

 23. 

Solomon Asch's classic experiment (in which subjects judged a standard line and comparison lines) was arranged to test the limits of
a.
social perception.
b.
indoctrination.
c.
coercive power.
d.
conformity.
 

 24. 

Aggression is best defined as
a.
hostility.
b.
anger.
c.
any action carried out with the intent of harming another person.
d.
none of these
 

 25. 

Attribution theory concerns our tendency to explain our behavior and that of others
a.
by external causes rather than internal causes.
b.
by inferring causes on the basis of internal or external factors.
c.
by internal rather than external causes.
d.
based on personality factors.
 

 26. 

The __________ hypothesis states that frustration tends to lead to aggression.
a.
frustration-aggression
b.
biological instinct
c.
social learning
d.
cognitive dissonance
 

 27. 

Which of the following is a testament to the power of roles?
a.
Cialdini's door-in-the-face effect
b.
Milgram's message experiment
c.
Zilstein's shock research
d.
Zimbardo's prison experiment
 

 28. 

Arabs are typically depicted in the media as oil-rich but ignorant and savage. In a time of war with an Arab country, this image would be used
a.
to make it easier for soldiers to kill the enemy.
b.
to educate the population regarding the enemy.
c.
to strip away the emotional insulation of our soldiers.
d.
very little, since previous attempts at dehumanizing (during W.W.II, for example) were ineffective.
 

 29. 

A compulsion by decision makers to maintain each other's approval, even at the cost of critical thinking and good judgment, is called
a.
the halo effect.
b.
expert power.
c.
groupthink.
d.
social conformity.
 

 30. 

The person who agrees to a small request initially is more likely later to comply with a larger demand. This describes the
a.
door-in-the-face-effect.
b.
foot-in-the-door effect.
c.
low-ball technique.
d.
high-ball technique.
 

 31. 

For most American adults, an invisible spatial envelope defining their most intimate space
a.
extends four feet from their body.
b.
extends an "arm's reach" from their body.
c.
is reserved for comfortable interactions with friends.
d.
extends about 18 inches out from their body.
 

 32. 

Which theory holds that a relationship must be profitable to endure?
a.
complementary need theory
b.
social exchange theory
c.
gain-loss theory
d.
social comparison theory
 

 33. 

Prejudice based on displaced aggression represents a form of
a.
projection.
b.
discrimination.
c.
scapegoating.
d.
authoritarianism.
 

 34. 

Social position in a group determines one's
a.
competence.
b.
autokinetic norms.
c.
role.
d.
usefulness.
 

 35. 

You are asked by a close friend to outline a complete text to aid her studying for a final exam. You refuse to help. Later, your friend asks if you would at least outline two chapters. Feeling guilty, you now agree to help. Your behavior is predicted by the
a.
foot-in-the-face technique.
b.
high-ball effect.
c.
low-ball technique.
d.
door-in-the-face effect.
 

 36. 

__________ attachment style is marked by conflicting feelings of affection, anger, and emotional turmoil.
a.
Mutual
b.
Secure
c.
Avoidant
d.
Ambivalent
 

 37. 

Zimbardo interpreted the results of his simulated prison study as an indication of the
a.
powerful influence of roles on people.
b.
tendency to show compassion to people in need.
c.
weakness of social pressure in some situations.
d.
tendency to displace aggression.
 

 38. 

With regard to the effects of TV on children, we can conclude that
a.
TV has little effect on the behavior of children.
b.
TV only increases aggressive behavior in children.
c.
TV only increases prosocial behavior in children.
d.
the amount of TV viewing may be related to aggressive behavior later in life.
 

 39. 

Subjects in Milgram's experiment who gave large shocks rationalized that they were NOT personally responsible for their actions. This raises questions about our willingness to commit inhumane acts as a result of
a.
coercive power.
b.
obedience to a legitimate authority.
c.
expert power.
d.
conformity to group pressure.
 

 40. 

The process of changing your behavior to match that of others in a group is
a.
norming.
b.
forming a social contract.
c.
conformity.
d.
standardization.
 

 41. 

If everyone leaves five minutes before the game is over to avoid a traffic jam, the resulting traffic jam would be an example of
a.
social impregnation.
b.
a social trap.
c.
groupthink.
d.
self-handicapping.
 

 42. 

People's invisible "spatial envelope" defines their __________, and extends "I" or "me" boundaries past the skin.
a.
spatial role
b.
personal space
c.
ego location
d.
proximal location
 

 43. 

A student who is unprepared for a final exam complains that he has a stomach ache and cannot take the exam. If the student's roommate ignores this complaint, he or she has probably attributed the student's symptoms to the
a.
object.
b.
actor.
c.
situation.
d.
need for affiliation.
 

 44. 

Physical proximity increases attraction because it
a.
increases frequency of contact.
b.
enhances social comparisons.
c.
establishes common norms.
d.
reduces development of incompatible roles.
 

 45. 

The study of unspoken rules for the use of interpersonal space is called
a.
kinesics.
b.
psychoecology.
c.
proxemics.
d.
territoriality.
 

 46. 

Someone asks you to bring dip to a party and you agree. Later the person asks you to also bring popcorn, chips, and sodas. The person has used which compliance strategy?
a.
the low-ball technique
b.
the over-commitment strategy
c.
the whole-part technique
d.
the passive obedience method
 

 47. 

The real danger of "groupthink" is that it
a.
is contagious.
b.
occurs in cohesive groups.
c.
disrupts coordinated efforts at group problem solving.
d.
leads to a suspension of critical thinking.
 

 48. 

The organization of roles, patterns of communication, and power in a group defines the group's
a.
status.
b.
structure.
c.
cohesiveness.
d.
norms.
 

 49. 

Those roles which one attains voluntarily are called
a.
ascribed roles.
b.
achieved roles.
c.
positions.
d.
social selves.
 

 50. 

Social traps can be dismantled by changing
a.
rewards and costs.
b.
supply and demand.
c.
compliance and assertiveness.
d.
the tendency toward groupthink.
 

 51. 

A learned disposition to respond to people, objects, or institutions in a positive or negative way defines
a.
cognitive dissonance.
b.
socialization.
c.
attitudes.
d.
stereotypes.
 

 52. 

In general, helping behavior in emergency situations is discouraged by
a.
the presence of a large number of persons.
b.
low costs associated with helping.
c.
smaller social distance between the helper and the victim.
d.
fear of cognitive dissonance.
 

 53. 

Frustration probably encourages aggression because it
a.
triggers genetic mechanisms.
b.
raises arousal levels and sensitivity to cues for aggression.
c.
triggers biological cues for aggression.
d.
relieves tension.
 

 54. 

When a person with little or no authority makes a direct request to another person, the situation involves
a.
compliance.
b.
obedience.
c.
coercion.
d.
conformity.
 

 55. 

The fact that physically attractive people also tend to be rated more highly on traits such as intelligence and honesty is an example of
a.
social magnetism.
b.
role modeling.
c.
social comparisons.
d.
the halo effect.
 

 56. 

Which of the following statements concerning "jigsaw" classrooms is TRUE?
a.
Jigsaw groups emphasize cooperation over competition.
b.
Compared to children in traditional classrooms, children in jigsaw groups were less prejudiced but had slightly lower grades.
c.
Children in jigsaw groups initially learn "pieces" of information together as a group.
d.
Even though the jigsaw groups as a whole perform better, high achievers tend to do worse in such groups than when learning alone.
 

 57. 

Negative attitudes that are tinged with fear, hatred, or suspicion is a definition of
a.
prejudice.
b.
authoritarianism.
c.
discrimination.
d.
displaced aggression.
 

 58. 

During his rise to power, Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany's economic woes. This is an example of
a.
personal discrimination.
b.
social stereotypes.
c.
symbolic prejudice.
d.
scapegoating.
 

 59. 

When you have "clashing thoughts," you are experiencing
a.
conformity pressure.
b.
obedience pressure.
c.
cognitive dissonance.
d.
open-ended role conflict.
 

 60. 

Interpersonal attraction is encouraged by which one of the following?
a.
personal space
b.
proxemics
c.
competition
d.
similarity
 

 61. 

Vanessa is female, a daughter, and a young adult. The roles that shape her behavior are called __________ roles.
a.
achieved
b.
ascribed
c.
ascertained
d.
actualized
 

 62. 

Desensitization is
a.
the imitation of an undesired response.
b.
the removal of an inhibition.
c.
reduction of emotional sensitivity.
d.
an increase in emotional sympathy.
 

 63. 

With respect to social traps, people are more likely to restrain themselves from inappropriate behavior if
a.
others are in the same social trap.
b.
the social trap involves lack of assertiveness.
c.
they believe others will also.
d.
the trap involves an element of groupthink.
 

 64. 

Janis recommends ways to prevent groupthink, which include
a.
focusing on subjective evaluation and interpretation.
b.
having the leader state personal preferences before discussion.
c.
focusing on the decision, as opposed to the process.
d.
encouraging someone to play devil's advocate.
 

 65. 

People's attitudes about women and rape primarily come from
a.
sexual images in X-rated books.
b.
sexual images in X-rated movies.
c.
violent images in mainstream movies and magazines.
d.
sexual images in mainstream movies and magazines.
 

 66. 

The judge who is caught cheating on his income tax is likely experiencing
a.
role diffusion.
b.
attribution failure.
c.
role conflict.
d.
attribution error.
 

 67. 

Alcohol
a.
is a direct cause of aggression.
b.
lowers the threshold for aggression.
c.
causes relaxation and raises the threshold for aggression.
d.
induces hypoglycemia and frustration.
 

 68. 

Cognitive dissonance theory is based on the human need for
a.
self-actualization.
b.
gain-loss.
c.
cognitive dissonance.
d.
consistency.
 

 69. 

According to evolutionary psychologists,
a.
men tend to be concerned with whether mates will devote time and resources to a relationship.
b.
men place more emphasis on physical attractiveness.
c.
women place more emphasis on sexual fidelity.
d.
women are biologically driven to have multiple partners.
 

 70. 

Which of the following was a factor in determining the degree of obedience in Milgram's series of experiments?
a.
whether the experimenter was male or female
b.
distance between the teacher and the learner
c.
amount of complaining, shouting, and crying by the learner
d.
the tone of voice used by the experimenter
 

 71. 

Discrimination refers to behaviors that
a.
allow us to tell one ethnic group from another.
b.
occur when members of a racial group threaten an individual's security.
c.
prevent individuals from doing things they should be able to do.
d.
are directed toward a particular group.
 

 72. 

In an experiment in which a "student" simulated a seizure, helping was inhibited by
a.
conditions employing smaller groups.
b.
diffusion of responsibility.
c.
group discussion.
d.
reference cognitive dissonance.
 

 73. 

Sharing your own private thoughts and feelings is called
a.
self-talk.
b.
autonomy.
c.
self-disclosure.
d.
introspection.
 

 74. 

Which of the following was a significant factor in determining the degree of obedience in Milgram's series of experiments?
a.
the tone of voice used by the experimenter
b.
whether the experimenter was male or female
c.
amount of complaining, shouting, and crying by the learner
d.
the setting in which the experiment was conducted
 

 75. 

When making the "attribution error," we tend to overestimate the importance of __________ in judging the behavior of others.
a.
personal factors
b.
situational factors
c.
intelligence
d.
motivation
 

 76. 

People who think their ethnic, national, or religious group is superior to others are called
a.
authoritarian.
b.
dogmatic.
c.
ethnocentric.
d.
rigid.
 

 77. 

You do not want a large, unattractive political sign in your yard. However, if you initially agree to put a small sign in your window, later you are more likely to allow the large sign in your yard. This course of events is described by the
a.
foot-in-the-face technique.
b.
low-ball technique.
c.
door-in-the-face effect.
d.
foot-in-the-door effect.
 

 78. 

In his classic studies of conformity, Asch demonstrated that
a.
size of the majority does not influence how many people will conform.
b.
a majority of one produces about as much conformity as a majority of eight.
c.
lack of unanimity greatly reduces the pressure to conform.
d.
obedience to authority was determined by the authority's perceived referent power.
 

 79. 

__________ is the process of making inferences about behavior.
a.
Proxemics
b.
Attribution
c.
Cohesiveness
d.
Statusing
 

 80. 

Creation of superordinate goals has been shown to be effective in reducing
a.
intergroup conflict.
b.
authoritarianism.
c.
cognitive dissonance.
d.
social posturing.
 

 81. 

Expected behavior patterns associated with particular social positions are called
a.
roles.
b.
culture.
c.
stereotypes.
d.
mannerisms.
 

 82. 

As part of an experiment, two young women stroll down a busy sidewalk with their arms around each other. They get a variety of reactions from passersby, including disapproving looks and comments. These reactions demonstrate the existence of
a.
norms.
b.
ascribed roles.
c.
group structures.
d.
achieved roles.
 

 83. 

After Mrs. Keech's doomsday predictions failed, her followers suddenly became interested in convincing others they were right. This turn of events is predicted by __________ theory.
a.
social exchange
b.
gain-loss
c.
cognitive dissonance
d.
balance
 

 84. 

The demonstration by Jane Elliot with blue-eyed and brown-eyed children suggests that an effective way to generate conditions of prejudice is to
a.
require persons to compete for scarce resources.
b.
physically isolate two groups from each other.
c.
produce inequalities in power, prestige, or privileges of group members.
d.
demand that members of two groups cooperate to achieve a common goal.
 

 85. 

An individual's misuse of valuable natural resources could be an example of
a.
group sanctions.
b.
a social trap.
c.
compliance.
d.
groupthink.
 

 86. 

Overdisclosure often results in
a.
growing trust and intimacy.
b.
increased attraction.
c.
suspicion and reduced attraction.
d.
a tendency to respond in the same way.
 

 87. 

The three techniques used for brainwashing identified by McConnell are
a.
isolation, dependency, and reward.
b.
de-stabilization, isolation, and conditioning.
c.
target behavior, dissonance, and consonance.
d.
isolation, change, and direct contact.
 

 88. 

Comparing yourself with a person who ranks lower than you is referred to as
a.
social comparison.
b.
downward comparison.
c.
upward comparison.
d.
physical proximity.
 

 89. 

How individuals are affected by the presence of others is the focus of study in the field of
a.
Sociology.
b.
Social psychology.
c.
Experimental psychology.
d.
Sociobiology
 

 90. 

Shows such as Mr. Roger's Neighborhood and Sesame Street demonstrate TV's ability to
a.
teach prosocial behavior.
b.
desensitize children.
c.
disinhibit antisocial behavior.
d.
reduce tension and frustration.
 

 91. 

Karen smokes two packs of cigarettes a day. However, she is aware that smoking is harmful to her health; therefore, she holds two conflicting or dissonant thoughts. If Karen were to reduce her cognitive dissonance by changing her attitude, she might say to herself,
a.
"Smoking really isn't that dangerous."
b.
"Smoking is a habit that I have little control over."
c.
"I think that I'll try to give up smoking."
d.
"I'll only smoke when I feel stressed out."
 

 92. 

Zimbardo's prison experiment suggests that many destructive human relationships have their source in
a.
role diffusion.
b.
role conflict.
c.
learned roles.
d.
group cohesiveness.
 

 93. 

The study of the adaptive origins of human behavior patterns is called
a.
Matin's preferences.
b.
evolutionary attachment.
c.
interpersonal attraction.
d.
evolutionary psychology.
 

 94. 

Groups reward members with __________ and __________ for comformity.
a.
unanimity; power
b.
power; authority
c.
legitimacy; power
d.
approval; acceptance
 

 95. 

Stanley Milgram's experiment in which a "teacher" gave shocks to a "learner" was designed to test the limits of
a.
expert power.
b.
coercive power.
c.
obedience.
d.
conformity to a majority.
 

 96. 

Milgram's shock study showed people to be surprisingly
a.
rebellious.
b.
intelligent.
c.
sexist.
d.
obedient.
 

 97. 

Which is a method to reduce prejudice?
a.
mixed-status contact
b.
mutual exclusivity
c.
groupthink
d.
mutual interdependence
 

 98. 

An ongoing pattern of life including such things as language, customs and sex roles is called
a.
conformity.
b.
norms.
c.
group cohesion.
d.
culture.
 

 99. 

A reference group is
a.
one with which a person has face-to-face contact.
b.
any group in which one plays an active role or has membership.
c.
any group outside one's social distance boundaries.
d.
any group whose values and attitudes are seen as relevant to one's own.
 

 100. 

Studies of conformity indicate that people are more apt to be influenced by others if they
a.
are concerned about the approval of others.
b.
have low needs for certainty and structure.
c.
are in temporary rather than established groups.
d.
are in very large groups.
 



 
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