Name: 
 

States of Consciousness



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The chief characteristic of hypnosis is
a.
heightened arousal.
b.
increased suggestibility.
c.
enhanced creativity.
d.
increased clairvoyance.
 

 2. 

The most frequently used psychoactive drug in the United States is
a.
marijuana.
b.
cocaine.
c.
alcohol.
d.
caffeine.
 

 3. 

Which of the following sleep phenomena could be detected without the aid of an EEG machine?
a.
Stage 2 sleep
b.
REM sleep
c.
Stage 3 sleep
d.
sleep spindles
 

 4. 

Dissociation or a split in awareness is an experience commonly associated with
a.
hypnotic induction.
b.
amphetamine intoxication.
c.
withdrawal symptoms.
d.
relaxation training.
 

 5. 

Which of the following best describes the stability of sleep cycles?
a.
They are innate so they cannot be modified.
b.
They are innate but can be modified in times of emergency.
c.
They are entirely learned but are difficult to modify.
d.
They are entirely learned and, thus, may be easily modified.
 

 6. 

A loud noise awakens you; you emerge from sleep confused and do not remember the noise. You were in which stage of sleep?
a.
Stage 1
b.
Stage 2
c.
Stage 3
d.
Stage 4
 

 7. 

Which of the following is a goal of the therapeutic use of sensory deprivation?
a.
decompression of the ventricular system.
b.
experiencing relaxation and reducing stress.
c.
producing delusions.
d.
producing hallucinations.
 

 8. 

Hypnotized subjects who were told to plunge one hand into a painful bath of ice water, and were told to feel no pain,
a.
awoke from their hypnosis.
b.
wrote "it hurts" with their free hand.
c.
did not feel any pain.
d.
went into a coma.
 

 9. 

Beta waves are characteristic in the EEG of a person who is
a.
dreaming.
b.
asleep but not dreaming.
c.
awake and alert.
d.
in Stage 2 sleep.
 

 10. 

Physical cravings for a drug and unpleasant reactions when the drug is withheld are signs of
a.
drug tolerance.
b.
psychological dependence.
c.
emotional dependence.
d.
physical addiction.
 

 11. 

Drug abuse associated with which of the following drugs is correlated with breast cysts, birth defects, miscarriage, and contributes to bladder cancer, heart problems, and high blood pressure?
a.
caffeine
b.
cocaine
c.
nicotine
d.
heroin
 

 12. 

Which of the following drugs is physically addictive?
a.
morphine
b.
cocaine
c.
heroin
d.
all of these
 

 13. 

The reduction in the body's response to a drug which may accompany drug use is called
a.
withdrawal.
b.
addiction.
c.
dependence.
d.
tolerance.
 

 14. 

A sudden, irresistible urge to sleep, which lasts a few minutes to half an hour during the daytime, is called
a.
narcolepsy.
b.
hypersomnia.
c.
sleep apnea.
d.
sleepwalking disorder.
 

 15. 

A particularly dangerous (often fatal) combination of drugs is
a.
marijuana and hashish.
b.
amphetamines and dexedrine.
c.
alcohol and barbiturates.
d.
caffeine and nicotine.
 

 16. 

The surest way to alter human consciousness is
a.
through meditation.
b.
by sleeping.
c.
to administer a psychoactive drug.
d.
to use sensory deprivation.
 

 17. 

Freud believed that, in order to protect sleep and prevent the arousal of conscience, the content of our dreams is
a.
suppressed.
b.
disguised.
c.
enriched.
d.
synthesized.
 

 18. 

A sleep disturbance in which one awakens several times during the night and has difficulty returning to sleep is
a.
narcolepsy.
b.
sleep apnea.
c.
somnambulism.
d.
insomnia.
 

 19. 

When a person stops taking cocaine, all of the following occur EXCEPT
a.
occasional cravings for as long as a month.
b.
depression.
c.
an increased sense of energy.
d.
anhedonia.
 

 20. 

Which of the following is most likely to occur as a consequence of hypnosis?
a.
increase in strength to superhuman levels
b.
genuine regression to earlier age levels
c.
altered sensory experiences
d.
increased clarity and accuracy of memory
 

 21. 

Smoked forms of cocaine are commonly called
a.
meth.
b.
crack.
c.
ice.
d.
uppers.
 

 22. 

Confusion, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations are characteristic of
a.
microsleeps.
b.
circadian rhythms.
c.
sleep deprivation psychosis.
d.
sleep narcosis.
 

 23. 

Someone who is hungry may show
a.
an increase in dreams about food and eating.
b.
a decrease in dreams about food and eating.
c.
no particular increase in dreams about food and eating.
d.
no increase in food symbols in their dreams.
 

 24. 

During hypnosis, EEG (brain-wave) recordings
a.
resemble those obtained during sleep.
b.
resemble those obtained when a person is awake.
c.
slow almost to a stop.
d.
show clearly identifiable "trance waves."
 

 25. 

Nicotine is classified as a
a.
narcotic.
b.
depressant.
c.
relaxant.
d.
stimulant.
 

 26. 

The safest sleep position for most infants in order to prevent SIDS is
a.
face down.
b.
on their backs or sides.
c.
REM rebound.
d.
none of these.
 

 27. 

Infants sleep
a.
in 6-8 hour blocks of time.
b.
12 hours a day.
c.
in 2-4 hour blocks of time.
d.
in totally irregular patterns.
 

 28. 

The most common reactions to sleep loss up to 48 hours
a.
include inattention, staring, and tremor of the hands.
b.
include hallucinations and delusions.
c.
include insomnia.
d.
are similar to those found in psychosis.
 

 29. 

In a newborn infant, one could expect total sleep time each day to approach
a.
24 hours.
b.
20 hours.
c.
12 hours.
d.
8 hours.
 

 30. 

Our sleep rhythms are tied to a 24-hour day because
a.
the time of peak activity is invariant from person to person.
b.
they are tied to external time markers like light and dark.
c.
they have adapted to technological improvements made in the last century.
d.
everyone needs at least 8 hours of sleep every night.
 

 31. 

Drugs with names like Xanax, Halcion, and Valium are
a.
barbiturates.
b.
stimulants.
c.
hallucinogens.
d.
tranquilizers.
 

 32. 

Substances capable of altering human consciousness are classified as
a.
pharmacologic drugs.
b.
addictive.
c.
psychoactive drugs.
d.
narcotics.
 

 33. 

The ordering and duration of daily sleep and waking periods are known as
a.
meridian rhythms.
b.
sleep patterns.
c.
REM cycles.
d.
sleep stages.
 

 34. 

The major cause of temporary insomnia is
a.
REM deprivation.
b.
worry, stress, or excitement.
c.
drop in blood sugar during the night.
d.
stress combined with the use of sleeping pills.
 

 35. 

Research suggests that the two most basic states of sleep are
a.
alpha sleep and beta sleep.
b.
light sleep and deep sleep.
c.
REM sleep and non-REM sleep.
d.
REM sleep and paradoxical sleep.
 

 36. 

When a person is shut off from the world such that he or she cannot even tell what time it is by light or dark, their sleep-waking cycle
a.
stays at about 24 hours.
b.
shortens to an average of about 20 hours.
c.
lengthens to an average of about 25 hours.
d.
becomes completely disrupted.
 

 37. 

Hypnosis
a.
was introduced by the Austrian physician, Karl Zener.
b.
is characterized by brain wave patterns similar to sleep.
c.
is an altered state characterized by narrowed attention and increased openness to suggestion.
d.
is a sleep state in which the subjects are partially aware of their actions and able to perform many activities not normally carried out during sleep.
 

 38. 

The rhythms of sleep and waking
a.
coincide with cycles of the moon.
b.
are considerably shorter than 24 hours.
c.
are about 24 hours long.
d.
average around 36 hours.
 

 39. 

Which of the following is a major way in which altered states of consciousness are produced?
a.
prolonged mental exertion
b.
hypnosis
c.
lucid dreaming
d.
maintaining routine sleep patterns
 

 40. 

The average ratio of time awake to time asleep is
a.
1 to 1.
b.
2 to 1.
c.
3 to 1.
d.
unknown.
 

 41. 

Night terrors most often occur during
a.
Stage 1 NREM sleep.
b.
Stage 2 REM sleep.
c.
Stage 3 NREM sleep.
d.
Stage 4 NREM sleep.
 

 42. 

According to Freud, dreams are very often a means of
a.
wish fulfillment.
b.
solving daytime problems.
c.
telling oneself what's missing in one's life.
d.
categorizing one's experience.
 

 43. 

Lindsay is having trouble going to sleep. Which food would be recommended for her to eat if she wanted to increase her intake of tryptophan?
a.
a turkey sandwich and a banana
b.
a hamburger
c.
fruit salad
d.
a glass of red wine
 

 44. 

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a condition called
a.
narcolepsy.
b.
hypersomnia.
c.
sleep apnea.
d.
sleepwalking disorder.
 

 45. 

Immediately before sleep the EEG shifts to patterns of larger and slower waves called __________ waves.
a.
alpha
b.
beta
c.
delta
d.
spindle
 

 46. 

Perhaps the best known hallucinogen is
a.
cocaine.
b.
alcohol.
c.
LSD.
d.
nicotine.
 

 47. 

Dreams usually
a.
occur twice nightly.
b.
last only about five minutes each.
c.
are about ninety minutes apart with each succeeding dream lasting a little longer.
d.
are instantaneous, being a flash of visual images.
 

 48. 

Which of the following is a primary characteristic of dream sleep?
a.
irregular heart rate and blood pressure
b.
sexual arousal
c.
increased muscle tension
d.
rapid eye movements
 

 49. 

Which stage of sleep typically has spindles?
a.
first
b.
second
c.
third
d.
fourth
 

 50. 

NREM sleep occurs mainly in
a.
Stage 2 sleep.
b.
Stage 3 sleep.
c.
Stage 4 sleep.
d.
all of these.
 

 51. 

That there is a need for REM sleep is suggested by
a.
REM rebound.
b.
REM tolerance.
c.
eye movements accompanying REM sleep.
d.
emotional catharsis during REM sleep.
 

 52. 

Hypnosis is particularly useful
a.
for test taking due to increased memory.
b.
in helping a subject regress to childhood.
c.
for creating momentary superhuman bursts of strength.
d.
in controlling phantom limb pain.
 

 53. 

Recent evidence suggests that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana,
a.
is harmless.
b.
is physically addictive.
c.
is fatal in mild doses.
d.
accumulates in fatty tissue.
 

 54. 

Short-term drug use based largely on curiosity is called
a.
experimental.
b.
compulsive.
c.
situational.
d.
regressive.
 

 55. 

A sleep disturbance characterized by snoring, short silences, and gasps is called
a.
sleep apnea.
b.
narcolepsy.
c.
somnambulism.
d.
insomnia.
 

 56. 

Hypnosis currently has its greatest value as a(n)
a.
cure-all counseling approach.
b.
combination treatment with acupuncture and massage.
c.
tool for inducing relaxation.
d.
valuable technique for uncovering repressed memories.
 

 57. 

Some physicians believe that SIDS, or crib death, may be caused by
a.
prematurity.
b.
sleep apnea.
c.
narcolepsy.
d.
snoring.
 

 58. 

__________ is an amino acid that can help people sleep and can be found in a glass of __________.
a.
Teratogen; orange juice
b.
Tetracycline; natural sparkling water
c.
Tryptophan; milk
d.
Thalidomide; wine
 

 59. 

Which of the following is a correct match?
a.
Stage 1 - light sleep
b.
Stage 2 - beta waves
c.
Stage 3 - alpha waves
d.
Stage 4 - sleep spindles
 

 60. 

Which of the following is classified as a stimulant?
a.
alcohol
b.
cocaine
c.
marijuana
d.
morphine
 

 61. 

Sleeptalking
a.
occurs most often in association with night terrors.
b.
is the outward expression of dream content.
c.
occurs during sleep stages 3 and 4.
d.
occurs during REM sleep and is therefore rather brief.
 

 62. 

Which of the following could you learn to do in your sleep?
a.
math
b.
foreign language
c.
touch a switch on cue
d.
dream analysis
 

 63. 

Treatment for alcoholism generally begins with
a.
vitamin therapy.
b.
tranquilizers.
c.
psychotherapy.
d.
detoxification.
 

 64. 

If you suffered sleep deprivation, what type of effect would occur first?
a.
hallucinations and delusions
b.
loss of ability to pay attention and perform simple routine tasks
c.
both long-term and short-term memory loss
d.
coma
 

 65. 

People dream
a.
about 15 minutes during the night.
b.
about every 30 minutes in each 90 minute cycle.
c.
more often in NREM sleep than in REM sleep.
d.
about 90 minutes a night.
 

 66. 

A very stressful day is likely to increase the amount of
a.
somnambulism.
b.
sleep talking.
c.
NREM sleep.
d.
REM sleep.
 

 67. 

Which of the following occurs during dream sleep?
a.
irregular heart rate and blood pressure
b.
delta waves
c.
increased muscle tension
d.
sleep walking
 

 68. 

Extensive study of dreams indicates that
a.
nearly all dreams are sexual.
b.
most dreams are extensions of everyday experience.
c.
pleasant emotions are more frequent in dreams than unpleasant.
d.
the content of dreams usually deals with psychological violence.
 

 69. 

In Stage __________, a new brain wave begins to appear. __________ waves are very large and slow and signal deeper sleep and a further loss of consciousness.
a.
one; Alpha
b.
two; Delta
c.
three; Delta
d.
four; Alpha
 

 70. 

Cocaine achieves its effect through the chemical messengers
a.
dopamine and noradrenaline.
b.
noradrenaline and THC.
c.
sopor and phosphene.
d.
RNA and adrenaline.
 

 71. 

Many of the chemicals released by a burning cigarette are
a.
harmless.
b.
carcinogens.
c.
unknown.
d.
tetrahydrines.
 

 72. 

As the muscles in your body relax during Stage 1 sleep, the reflex muscle contraction that may happen is called
a.
an autonomic cramp.
b.
a hypnic jerk.
c.
restless leg syndrome.
d.
hypnogogic image syndrome.
 

 73. 

Which waves are characteristic of stage 1 or light sleep?
a.
beta waves
b.
large regular waves with some sleep spindles
c.
small irregular waves with some alpha waves
d.
delta waves
 

 74. 

Alcohol is classified as a
a.
stimulant.
b.
depressant.
c.
hallucinogen.
d.
barbiturate.
 

 75. 

A person experiences blind panic, screaming, and thrashing around during the terror. This episode is called
a.
a nightmare.
b.
a night terror.
c.
a REM rebound episode.
d.
paradoxical sleep.
 

 76. 

REM sleep makes up about __________ percent of total sleep.
a.
10
b.
20
c.
30
d.
40
 

 77. 

Which of the following statements concerning marijuana is TRUE?
a.
There is a direct link between marijuana and lung cancer.
b.
Long-term marijuana users show no impairments of thinking abilities.
c.
Marijuana temporarily lowers sperm production in males.
d.
Marijuana is extremely harmful.
 

 78. 

To be conscious means to be __________ .
a.
dreaming
b.
aware
c.
dynamic
d.
in REM
 

 79. 

At the center of the activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming is the need to
a.
give expression to unfulfilled wishes.
b.
provide an outlet for repressed thoughts.
c.
provide explanations for physiological activity.
d.
exhibit socially acceptable behavior.
 

 80. 

The drug in America that causes the most damage is
a.
marijuana.
b.
heroin.
c.
alcohol.
d.
cocaine.
 

 81. 

EEG records indicate that during sleep the brain
a.
increases its activity.
b.
changes its pattern of activity.
c.
reduces its activity.
d.
shuts down.
 

 82. 

A person who has trouble getting to sleep is said to suffer from
a.
narcolepsy.
b.
sleep apnea.
c.
insomnia.
d.
somnambulism.
 



 
Check Your Work     Reset Help