Name: 
 

Therapies



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Freud's theory was based on the belief that neuroses were caused by
a.
repressed memories, motives, and conflicts.
b.
learned maladaptive behaviors.
c.
negative self-regard.
d.
destructive interpersonal relationships.
 

 2. 

In an institution for delinquent adolescents, a behavioral system has been implemented in which the adolescents earn points for target behaviors like getting up on time, making beds, attending class, etc. They are allowed to exchange their earned points for privileges, activities, etc. This system is called __________ and is based on __________.
a.
systematic desensitization; gradual exposure.
b.
time out; extinction.
c.
a token economy; reinforcement.
d.
primary reinforcement; non-reward
 

 3. 

Freud considered the distinction between manifest content and latent content essential for
a.
free association.
b.
dream analysis.
c.
resistance.
d.
transference.
 

 4. 

In psychoanalysis, patients avoid talking about certain subjects. This is called
a.
avoidance.
b.
transference.
c.
analysis.
d.
resistance.
 

 5. 

In psychoanalysis, an emotional attachment to the therapist that symbolically represents other important relationships is called
a.
resistance.
b.
transference.
c.
identification.
d.
empathy.
 

 6. 

A form of therapy that encourages one to become aware of emotions in the "here and now" and to rebuild thinking, feeling, and acting into connected wholes is
a.
existential therapy.
b.
Gestalt therapy.
c.
transactional analysis.
d.
non-directive therapy.
 

 7. 

According to Aaron Beck, negative, __________ underlie depression.
a.
unconscious motives
b.
unrealistic goals
c.
irrational fears
d.
self-defeating thoughts
 

 8. 

__________ is any technique involving surgical alteration of the brain.
a.
Ablation lesioning
b.
Psychosurgery
c.
Deep ECT
d.
Psychic surgery
 

 9. 

A psychoanalyst who believes in the theories of Freud would see psychopathology as caused by
a.
birth trauma.
b.
repressed sexuality and aggression.
c.
bizarre dreams.
d.
immature personal relationships.
 

 10. 

A parent who copes with quarreling among young children by placing them in separate rooms is using
a.
punishment.
b.
reinforcement.
c.
time out.
d.
shaping.
 

 11. 

If ignoring causes a child's temper-tantrums to cease, a psychologist would call this effect
a.
shaping.
b.
punishment.
c.
time out.
d.
extinction.
 

 12. 

When electric shock is used to make the sight and smell of alcohol conditioned stimuli for an aversion response, the electric shock serves as the
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
unconditioned response.
d.
conditioned hierarchy.
 

 13. 

Role reversal and the mirror technique are associated with
a.
Gestalt therapy.
b.
psychodrama.
c.
logotherapy.
d.
psychoanalysis.
 

 14. 

The prefrontal lobotomy has been replaced by
a.
electroconvulsive shock.
b.
deep-lesioning techniques.
c.
PET scans.
d.
X-ray therapy.
 

 15. 

Virtual reality exposure refers to
a.
a sexual disorder involving flashing in order to shock and get attention
b.
having a person vividly imagine distressing images
c.
presentation of feared stimuli in a three-dimensional, computer generated world
d.
another form of role playing
 

 16. 

Exorcism often involved
a.
religious catharsis.
b.
boring a hole in the jaw.
c.
the use of physical torture.
d.
hypnotism.
 

 17. 

In rational-emotive therapy,
a.
clients are encouraged to take responsibility for their own choices.
b.
clients learn to challenge irrational beliefs.
c.
the therapist seeks to have the client discover rational insights on his or her own.
d.
irrational elements of the unconscious are made to conform to reality.
 

 18. 

The most appropriate use of electroconvulsive therapy is as a
a.
preferred means of treatment for all cases of depression.
b.
preferred means of treatment for organic psychoses in which brain pathology exists.
c.
preferred means of treatment for antisocial disorders.
d.
last resort after other methods have failed and the likelihood of self-destructive behavior is great.
 

 19. 

Harriet, a student nurse, was at first extremely uncomfortable at the sight of blood. After a month of experience working in the emergency room, she is no longer upset when confronted with serious injuries. Harriet has undergone
a.
time out.
b.
shaping.
c.
desensitization.
d.
trial-and-error learning.
 

 20. 

A problem with aversion therapy is
a.
constructing a realistic hierarchy.
b.
transfer of learning to the real world.
c.
identifying and removing rewards.
d.
the overuse of habituation.
 

 21. 

Which is a myth regarding psychotherapy?
a.
Psychotherapy provides a complete transformation of the psyche.
b.
Chances for improvement are good with phobias, some sexual problems, and marital conflicts.
c.
Psychotherapy does not bring about dramatic changes in behavior.
d.
Psychotherapy's major benefit is that it provides the person comfort and support.
 

 22. 

When a therapist attempts to see the world through the client's eyes and to feel some part of what he or she is feeling, the therapist is using
a.
authenticity.
b.
empathy.
c.
reflection.
d.
ego-centering.
 

 23. 

Trepanning, one of the more primitive practices involving boring a hole into the skull, was used to
a.
release "evil spirits."
b.
shock patients into a remission of symptoms.
c.
coerce and control disruptive patients.
d.
punish those who had committed crimes.
 

 24. 

The key aspect of existential therapy is
a.
resolving unconscious conflicts.
b.
eliminating symptoms.
c.
believing you are capable of making choices about who you want to be.
d.
a holistic analysis.
 

 25. 

The owner of a chicken ranch ends a pet dog's habit of stealing and eating eggs by allowing the dog to "find" and eat several eggs laced with Tabasco sauce. The ranch owner's approach is similar to
a.
covert sensitization.
b.
aversion therapy.
c.
implosive therapy.
d.
desensitization techniques.
 

 26. 

Freud called which of the following the "royal road to the unconscious"?
a.
analysis of transference.
b.
analysis of resistance.
c.
dream analysis.
d.
free association.
 

 27. 

Psychoanalysis, desensitization, reality therapy, behavior therapy, and client-centered therapy are all forms of
a.
somatotherapy.
b.
psychic therapy.
c.
group therapy.
d.
psychotherapy.
 

 28. 

Which of the following statements regarding the use of drugs for treating schizophrenia is TRUE?
a.
The best new drugs are cure-alls.
b.
A combination of medication and psychotherapy almost always works best.
c.
Drugs work for all people.
d.
Medication works effectively for 90% of the cases.
 

 29. 

Which of the following is the MOST likely outcome for psychotherapy?
a.
a complete personal transformation
b.
a renewal of intellectual and creative abilities
c.
overcoming the effects of early psychologically damaging experiences
d.
learning skills to better cope with stress
 

 30. 

The first true psychotherapy was developed by __________ around the turn of the century to treat cases of __________ .
a.
Freud; hysteria
b.
Pinel; psychosis
c.
Eysenck; neurosis
d.
Bicétre; hysteria
 

 31. 

Traditional psychoanalysis can be objectively criticized as
a.
requiring large amounts of time and money.
b.
effective only in treating psychosis.
c.
no better than no treatment at all.
d.
placing too much responsibility on the client.
 

 32. 

Which of the following is identified with client-centered therapy?
a.
providing advice, setting goals, and giving interpretations
b.
dream analysis, transference, and analysis of resistance
c.
unconditional positive regard, empathy, authenticity, and reflection
d.
goal-setting, desensitization, modeling, and recentering
 

 33. 

Major tranquilizers are also known as
a.
stimulants.
b.
energizers.
c.
psychoactives.
d.
antipsychotics.
 

 34. 

The practice of drilling a hole in a person's head to let the evil spirits out is called
a.
ECT.
b.
envaraging.
c.
subdural relief.
d.
trepanning.
 

 35. 

Freud called his form of psychotherapy
a.
hysteria therapy.
b.
somatotherapy.
c.
psychoanalysis.
d.
transference therapy.
 

 36. 

Unconditional positive regard is part of what therapy?
a.
logotherapy
b.
psychoanalysis
c.
client-centered therapy
d.
Gestalt therapy
 

 37. 

Humane treatment of the emotionally disturbed was spearheaded by __________, who personally unchained inmates at the Bicétre Asylum.
a.
Freud
b.
Pinel
c.
Rogers
d.
Frankl
 

 38. 

Psychoanalysis is to insight as behavior therapy is to
a.
motivation.
b.
action.
c.
medical.
d.
understanding.
 

 39. 

Dr. Hochman is a therapist who tries to lend support to clients who are having an emotional crisis and want to solve daily life problems. He most likely practices __________ therapy.
a.
insight
b.
action
c.
directive
d.
supportive
 

 40. 

Which of the following promotes mental health?
a.
identity confusion
b.
personal autonomy
c.
lack of self-control
d.
Type A personality
 

 41. 

The behavioral technique that has been most effective in treating depression is
a.
aversion therapy.
b.
a token economy.
c.
cognitive therapy.
d.
covert sensitization.
 

 42. 

Which form of therapy places responsibility for the course of therapy on the client?
a.
insight therapy
b.
action therapy
c.
directive therapy
d.
non-directive therapy
 

 43. 

Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological disorder that may be caused by
a.
taking major tranquilizers for extended periods.
b.
an undersecretion of the body's natural dopamine's.
c.
a lack of dopamine receptors in the limbic system in the brain.
d.
abuse of amphetamines.
 

 44. 

Which of the following is the most likely consequence of punishment?
a.
elimination of the punished response
b.
increase in the frequency of the response
c.
suppression of the punished response
d.
no change in the immediate or long-term frequency of the response
 

 45. 

In aversion therapy a person __________ to associate a strong aversion with an undesirable habit.
a.
knows
b.
learns
c.
wants
d.
hopes
 

 46. 

Saying whatever comes to mind, even if it seems senseless, painful, or embarrassing, is part of the Freudian technique known as
a.
unconditional regard.
b.
non-directive therapy.
c.
free association.
d.
transactional analysis.
 

 47. 

The use of classical conditioning to alleviate human problems is called
a.
radical therapy.
b.
behavior modification.
c.
aversion therapy.
d.
reciprocal inhibition.
 

 48. 

Ergotism refers to
a.
a primitive form of drug therapy.
b.
a form of possession or madness.
c.
reactions to chemicals found in a fungus.
d.
a treatment designed to expand sensory experience.
 

 49. 

The disappearance of symptoms due to the mere passage of time is termed
a.
spontaneous remission.
b.
catharsis.
c.
active remediation.
d.
reversal.
 

 50. 

Behavior modification might be considered optimistic because it views mental disorders as
a.
biochemical imbalances that can be balanced.
b.
learned responses that can be unlearned.
c.
an expression of repressed impulses that can be freed.
d.
the result of only temporary blockages to a natural tendency for growth.
 

 51. 

Those who decide that no one will ever love them again because they have been rejected by a "significant other" and are, therefore, unlovable are illustrating
a.
all-or-nothing thinking.
b.
overgeneralization.
c.
selective perception.
d.
minimizing the importance of an undesirable event.
 

 52. 

Carena has a bad habit of biting her fingernails and pulling at her cuticles until her fingers bleed and have sores. Her therapist is teaching her how to not bite and pick at her fingernails using various learning principles. Her therapist is using
a.
behavior therapy.
b.
humanistic therapy.
c.
psychoanalysis.
d.
logotherapy.
 

 53. 

The basic assumption of behavior therapy is that
a.
deep understanding of one's problems leads to behavior change.
b.
past experiences and emotional trauma must be probed before behavior can be changed.
c.
learned response causes problems, therefore, behavior can be changed by relearning.
d.
phobias can be created and dismantled.
 

 54. 

Carl Rogers is responsible for
a.
client-centered therapy.
b.
psychoanalysis.
c.
directive therapy.
d.
existential therapy.
 

 55. 

Behavior modification involves
a.
applying non-directive techniques such as unconditional positive regard to clients.
b.
psychoanalytic approaches to specific behavior disturbances.
c.
the use of learning principles to change behavior.
d.
the use of insight therapy to change upsetting thoughts and beliefs.
 

 56. 

The obvious and visible aspects of a dream comprise its
a.
manifest content.
b.
lucid content.
c.
conscious core.
d.
latent content.
 

 57. 

Cognitive therapists are interested in
a.
only maladaptive actions.
b.
unconscious thoughts of sex and aggression.
c.
what people think, believe, and feel.
d.
only visible behaviors.
 

 58. 

According to __________, perception (awareness) becomes disjointed and incomplete in a maladjusted person.
a.
logotherapists
b.
existentialists
c.
Gestalt therapists
d.
Rogerians
 

 59. 

Which of the following psychotherapeutic techniques is most likely to be used by a client-centered therapist?
a.
reflection of feelings
b.
interpretation of unconscious resistance
c.
challenging the client to make courageous life choices
d.
probing experiences of early childhood
 

 60. 

Freud's method of psychotherapy stressed
a.
bringing an end to irrational and self-defeating internal dialogue.
b.
unconditional positive regard and empathy.
c.
free association, dream analysis, and transference.
d.
pharmacology.
 

 61. 

Desensitization is primarily used to
a.
alleviate phobias and anxieties.
b.
overcome destructive habits.
c.
symbolically reward positive behavior.
d.
decrease free-floating anxiety.
 

 62. 

Free association is a basic technique in
a.
psychoanalysis.
b.
action therapy.
c.
logotherapy.
d.
directive therapy.
 

 63. 

Your friend Kiki comes to you with a personal problem. The first thing you should do to counsel her is to
a.
give her advise on what she should do.
b.
ask closed questions to get her talking.
c.
tell her what you would do in her situation.
d.
actively listen to try to clarify the problem.
 

 64. 

The risk-benefit ratio in treating schizophrenia refers to
a.
the advantages and disadvantages of hospitalization.
b.
the benefits of medication in alleviating psychotic symptoms versus the adverse effects.
c.
both the advantages and disadvantages of hospitalization and the benefits versus the adverse effects of medication.
d.
neither the advantages and disadvantages of hospitalization nor benefits of medication versus the adverse effects.
 

 65. 

A verbal interaction between a trained mental health professional and several clients is called
a.
psychoanalysis.
b.
individual therapy.
c.
insight therapy.
d.
group therapy.
 

 66. 

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is most likely to be used, as a last resort, with which type of problem?
a.
hyperactivity and agitation
b.
conversion reactions
c.
paranoia
d.
severe depression that does not respond to any other treatment
 

 67. 

A child who has an intense fear of a dog as a result of some traumatic experience in the dog's presence would be a candidate for
a.
aversive conditioning.
b.
punishment training.
c.
desensitization.
d.
stimulus control.
 

 68. 

The drugs used to control hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms are called
a.
anti-depressants.
b.
energizers.
c.
minor tranquilizers.
d.
antipsychotics.
 

 69. 

According to __________, each person creates his or her private world by making choices in order to confront and overcome feelings of meaninglessness and isolation.
a.
existential therapists
b.
Gestalt therapists
c.
psychoanalysts
d.
Carl Rogers
 

 70. 

A therapist guides a client by giving instructions, interpretations, or solutions, and by making decisions. The therapist's approach can be described as __________ therapy.
a.
directive
b.
action
c.
non-directive
d.
individual
 

 71. 

Humanistic therapies generally emphasize
a.
making full use of one's potential.
b.
an in-depth analysis of unconscious forces within the personality.
c.
alteration of long-established habits.
d.
the value of spontaneous remissions.
 

 72. 

Freud's theory of dream analysis is based on the assumption that the true meaning of dreams is found in their
a.
latent content.
b.
manifest content.
c.
neurotic content.
d.
conscious core.
 

 73. 

Regarding rational-emotive therapy, it can be said that
a.
critics suggest that it is really a type of psychoanalysis.
b.
having irrational beliefs is related to feelings of unhappiness.
c.
surrendering one's irrational beliefs is best achieved by operant shaping.
d.
most irrational beliefs occur at the unconscious level and can't be stopped.
 

 74. 

Frank considers himself to be a total failure and a worthless person because he failed one class. Frank's behavior exemplifies the distortion of thinking behavioral therapists call
a.
all-or-nothing thinking.
b.
magnification.
c.
overgeneralization.
d.
selective perception.
 

 75. 

A cognitive therapist is concerned primarily with helping clients change their
a.
thinking patterns.
b.
behaviors.
c.
life-styles.
d.
habits.
 

 76. 

The therapeutic technique of associating a discomfort with a bad habit is based on which type of conditioning?
a.
instrumental
b.
classical
c.
operant
d.
token
 

 77. 

Symbolic rewards used to encourage positive changes in behavior are called
a.
operants.
b.
tokens.
c.
chips.
d.
strokes.
 

 78. 

If you get praised by your parents for making A's in your college courses, the grades are
a.
an example of stimulus control.
b.
an example of time out.
c.
positive reinforcers.
d.
situationally controlled.
 

 79. 

A therapeutic technique for psychological disorders that produces seizures, decreased emotional responses, and even stupor as side effects is
a.
lobotomy.
b.
chemotherapy.
c.
hospitalization.
d.
immunotherapy.
 

 80. 

In client-centered therapy, the troubled individual is
a.
asked to free associate to bring hidden conflicts into awareness.
b.
stripped of ego-defenses and unrealistic beliefs.
c.
engaged in awareness training through use of the "hot seat," "empty chair," and related techniques.
d.
encouraged to explore conscious thoughts and feelings.
 



 
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