(1990): Resilience can be seen as maintaining adaptive functioning in spite
of serious risk factors.
Wyman et al.
(2000): Resilience can be defined as a child’s achievement of positive
developmental outcomes and avoidance of maladaptive outcomes under adverse
Focus is on
risk factors in development as well as protective factors. A
risk (or protective) factor in psychosocial development could be the
early relationships with caregivers as these relationships provide the
foundations for developing secure attachments, feelings of self-worth, and
regulations of emotions.
The child is
seen as part of multiple systems where risk factors and protective factors
are included in the overall understanding of development.
Focus on how
to promote resilience by preventative interventions to help children at risk
(e.g. parenting programs, academic programs, family support).
(2006) claimed that resilience should not be seen as an individual trait.
Individual resilience must be studied in the context of adversity and risk
in relation to multiple contextual factors that interact (e.g. family,
school, neighborhood, community, and culture) with individual factors (e.g.
the child’s temperament, intelligence, and health).
(2008) highlighted the importance of examining the factors and processes
that enable individuals to beat the odds instead of focusing on “adaptive
functioning of the individual” as this could lead to the misunderstanding
that resilience is a matter of personality traits and that everyone can make
it if they try hard enough. Such a dispositional approach can lead to
blaming the victim of adverse circumstances. Instead, there should be a
focus on how to promote resilience by removing obstacles and creating