relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence
Elliot Aronson (1979)
cooperative learning technique designed to reduce prejudice and violence.
Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece--each student's part--is essential for
the completion and full understanding of the final product.
each student's part is essential, then each student is essential; and that is
precisely what makes this strategy so effective.
Aronson advocated for jigsaw classrooms as part of an approach to defusing the
social divisions underlying school violence.
Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP)
includes all staff, parents, and students in the school (universal program).
The aim is to change the school environment as a whole while targeting
individual students. Teachers receive training so that they can recognize
and deal with bullying and implement cooperative learning strategies in the
classroom. Includes supervision of the playgrounds and lunchroom. Students
fill out questionnaires.
The aim is to
identify bullies in elementary, middle, and high schools and help them and
their victims. Adults should be positive role models
Study to use:
of relative effectiveness of school based programs
It seems that
school-based strategies to reduce violence are not always very effective. It
is probably because violence is a complex phenomenon that must be addressed
at social, cultural, individual, and socioeconomic levels. It is necessary
to look at what works when and with whom as well as what does not work
(Guerra et al., 2006).
Ferguson et al. (2007) performed a meta-analysis of effectiveness of
school-based anti-bullying programs and found that overall they were not
very effective in reducing bullying or violent behavior in schools.
The programs targeting at-risk youth were slightly better. The reason for
this could be that bullying may allow some bullies to climb the social
dominance hierarchy among children at the expense of other children. For
such bullies the anti-bullying programs offer no incentives.