Describe symptoms and prevalence of two disorders
(anxiety, affective, or eating disorders)
Prevalence is a
statistical concept in medicine (or psychiatry). It refers to the percentage of
individuals within a population who are affected by a specific disorder either
currently or during their lifetime. Prevalence rates change cross-culturally and
of major depression (depressive episodes without mania) according to the DSM-V
Physiological: Fatigue or loss of energy, significant weight
loss or gain, loss of appetite, headaches, and
Cognitive: Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt;
difficulties concentrating; negative attitudes
towards the self, the world and the
future. (Feelings of guilt and
worthlessness seem to be symptoms that are primarily
experienced in Western cultures).
Emotional: Distress and sadness, loss of interest in the world.
Behavioral: Disturbed sleep patterns, self-destructive
behavior (suicidal thoughts), and avoidance of
Comorbidity Study (1994) found that prevalence for lifetime major depression
in the USA was 17.1%.
Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in the USA found that lifetime prevalence
of depression was 16.6% with 13.2 % for males and 20.2 for females (Kessler
et al. 2005).
Andrade and Caraveo
(2003) found that lifetime prevalence of depression varies across cultures
(e.g. 3% in Japan and 17% in the USA).
Kessler et al. (1993) found a lifetime prevalence for major depression of
21.3% in women compared to 12.7% in men.
of bulimia according to the DSM-IV-TR include:
Physiological: Nutritional deficiencies and hormonal changes could lead to
disturbances in the menstrual cycle, fatigue, digestive problems, muscle
Cognitive: Distorted body image, low self-esteem, sense of lack of control
during binge-eating episodes
Fear of becoming fat (fat phobia), body dissatisfaction, and depressed mood.
Self-starvation in combination with recurrent binge eating episodes and
compensatory behavior such as vomiting and misuse of laxatives to avoid
Beglin (1990) found that bulimia nervosa affected between 1 and 2 % of young
women in the USA and the UK. APA (200) estimated 1–3% of young adult females
to have Bulimia. The disorder occurs much less frequently in men.
al. (1988) conducted a telephone survey with a representative sample of
1,007 male and female students in the USA. They found that 1% of the women
and 0.2% of the men were classified as bulimic. Bulimia nervosa was most
prevalent among undergraduate women living on campus (2.2%).
Keel and Klump (2003) performed a meta-analysis of research on bulimia nervosa
and found an increase in people diagnosed with bulimia from 1970 to 1993. There
are no incidence data for bulimia prior to 1970. The diagnostic criteria for
bulimia have become more stringent over the years and this has resulted in the
increase of incidences. According to the researchers, self-report surveys tend
to produce higher estimates of bulimia nervosa prevalence than structured