Learning

Objectives:

  1. Discuss the nature and importance of learning.

  2. Describe the general process of classical conditioning as demonstrated by Pavlov's experiments.

  3. Explain the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination.

  4. Discuss the importance of cognitive processes and biological predispositions in classical conditioning.

  5. Explain the importance of Pavlov's work, noting how it paved the way for behaviorism, and describe how it might apply to an understanding of human health and well-being.

  6. Describe the process of operant conditioning, including the procedure of shaping, as demonstrated by Skinner's experiments.

  7. Identify the different types of reinforcers, and describe the major schedules of partial reinforcement.

  8. Discuss the effects of punishment on behavior.

  9. Explain why Skinner's ideas were controversial, and describe some major applications of operant conditioning.

  10. Describe the process of observational learning as demonstrated by Bandura's experiments.

  11. Discuss the impact of antisocial and pro-social modeling.

Vocabulary: associative learning, classical conditioning, learning, unconditioned response (UCR), unconditioned stimulus (UCS), conditioned response (CR), conditioned stimulus (CS), acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, behaviorism, operant conditioning, respondent behavior, operant behavior, law of effect, operant chamber (Skinner Box), shaping, reinforcer, primary reinforcer, conditioned reinforcer, continuous reinforcement, partial (intermittent) reinforcer, fixed-ratio schedule, variable-ratio schedule, fixed-interval schedule, variable-interval schedule, punishment, cognitive map, overjustification effect, latent learning, observational learning, modeling, pro-social modeling.